Biology 203

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Brandon47
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120943
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Biology 203
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2011-12-05 23:35:32
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Phylum - Arthropoda
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  1. Phylum - Arthropoda
    • 1. Bilateral, triploblasti protosomes
    • 2. Body segmented
    • 3. Most groups have a tendency toward regional body specialization and tagmosis - fusion of somites into functional units called tagma (ex. head, thorax, ect.
    • 4. Cuticle forms well developed exoskeleton; must shed exoskeleton to grow - Ecdysis = molting (exoskeleton has chitia)
    • 5. Each true body segment primitively bears a pair of segmented (jointed) appendages.
    • 6. Usually with a pair of lateral faceted (compound) eyes and 1 to several simple median eyes; both sets of eyes may be absent in some forms.
    • 7. open circulatory system (called a hemocoel)
    • 8. complete digestive tract with specialization
    • 9. advanced nervous system with regionalized brain and nerve cords
    • 10. non-motile/functional cilia used mostly far nerve impulses
    • 11. sperm non-motile
    • 12. Monoecious, but primarily Dioecious
    • -Largest phylum in Animal Kingdom
    • -Tagmosis is key advancement in this phylum and what makes them so successful
  2. What is the largest phylum in the Animal Kingdom?
    Arthropoda
  3. infaunal....
    - Those animals that live below the supstrate
  4. Epifaunal.....
    - Those animals that live above or outside the substrate
  5. What phylum is the subphylum - Trilobitomorpha in?
    - Arthropoda
  6. Phylum- Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Trilobitomorpha
    • 1. The trilobites - extinct
    • 2. Marine arthropods
    • 3. Body made up of a distinct head - fused (tagmosis) to posterior portion called a Pygidium.
    • 4. Head w/ antennae
    • 5. Two well-developed eyes (look compound from fossil evidence)
    • 6. Four pairs of appendages.
    • - were an extremely successful group of organism.
    • -fossilized because of hard body.
  7. What phylum is the subphylum - Crustacea in?
    - Arthropoda
  8. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Crustacea
    • 1. Body composed of a head an thorax that are fused and termed a Cephalothorax.
    • 2. Usually a distinct abdomen is present (remember: these fused segments are called tagmata)
    • 3. Appendages are multiarticulate and jointed as all arthropods; resilin-> sulfur protein that makes up the joints in arthropods.
    • 4. Mandibles or "jaws" are multiarticulate limbs and are considered gnathobasic (rolling limb jaw)
    • 5. Gas exchange usually by gills (very thin cuticle)
    • 6. Excertion by nephridia
    • 7. Compund eyes in most taxa with ocelli in some or both.
    • 8. Monoecious and dioecious
    • -Crabs, crawfish, lobsters, shrimp, rol polies, etc. in this subphylum
    • - Fiddler crabs - femals have two regular sized claws and males have one enlarged. Males attract females by claw size.
    • - Barnacles, by size, has longest penis of invertebrates (probably vertebrates also) in Animal Kingdom
    • - Barnacles are sessile, so need long pens to reach another barnacle in colony.
  9. Crabs, crawfish, lobsters, shrimp, roly polies belong to which subphylum?
    Subphylum - Crustacea
  10. What phylum is the subphylum - Cheliceriformes in?
    - Arthropoda
  11. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Cheliceriformes
    • 1. Body composed of two tagmata; the prosoma and the opisthosoma (or "cephalothorax" and abdomen")
    • 2. Appendages of prosoma are chelicerae(Jaws); pedipalps, and four pairs of walking legs; antennae absent.
    • 3. Appendages multi articulate and uniramous.
    • 4.Gas exchange by book gills, book lungs, or tracheae
    • 5. Excretion by coxal glands and/or Malpighian tubules.
    • 6. With simple medial eyes and sometimes lateral compound eyes
    • 7. Both monoecious and dioecious
    • - ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions, pseudo scorpions, crabs are members of this subphylum.
  12. ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions, pseudo scorpions, crabs belong to which supphylum?
    Subphylum - Cheliceriformes
  13. What Subphylum is Class - Merostomata in?
    Subphylum - Cheliceriformes
  14. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Cheliceriformes
    Class - Merostomata (Subclass Xiphosua)
    • 1. Horse shoe crabs - King crabs
    • 2. All marine
    • 3. Common along most tropical to subtropical coastlines
    • 4. Trilobite larva
  15. What Class does the Subclass Xiphosura belong to?
    Class - Merostomata
  16. What Subphylum is Class - Arachnida in?
    Subphylum - Cheliceriformes
  17. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Cheliceriformes
    Class - Arachnida
    • 1. Spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions
    • 2. Prosoma (anterior tagma) with four pairs of legs
    • 3. Opisthosoma (posterior tagma) lacks appendages
    • 4. No compound eyes
    • 5. Terrestrial and a few freshwater forms
    • 6. dioecious
    • - walking appendages located on the Prosoma.
    • - 21 Orders in this Class, but only need to know 3
    • Order: Araneae-spiders
    • Order: Scorpionida-scorpions
    • Order: Acari-ticks, mites
    • - of all the spiders in the United States, only the Black Widow and Brown Recluse are very dangerous/poisonous to humans. Almost every spider has som form of poison
  18. What Order do spiders belong to?
    - Order - Araneae
  19. What Order do scorpions belong to?
    - Order - Scorpionida
  20. What Order do ticks and mites belong to?
    - Order - Acari
  21. What Phylum does the Subphylum - Uniramia belong to?
    Phylum - Arthropoda
  22. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Uniramia
    • 1.Body composed of three (Insecta or Hexapoda) of two (Myriapoda) tagmata.
    • 2. All appendages are multi-articulate and uniramous
    • 3. Head with antennae and mandibles and various numbers of feeding appendages depending on group
    • 4. Mandibles are whole-limb jaws with a single biting surface at the tip
    • 5. Gas exchange by tracheal system with spiracles
    • 6. Malpighian tubules for excretion
    • 7. Compound eyes in most with ocelli (light sensitive structures)
    • 8. Primarily Dioecious
  23. What Subphylum does the Class - Myriapoda(many legs) belong to?
    Subphylum - Uniramia
  24. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphlum - Uniramia
    Class - Myriapoda (many legs)
    Subclass - Chilopoda
    • 1. the centipedes (hundred leggers)
    • 2. Predaceous - active predators
    • 3. Poison claws
    • 4. 1 leg per somite (=segment)
    • 5. Legs number from 15 to 173 pairs
  25. What Class does the Subclass - Chilopoda belong to?
    Class - Myriapoda
  26. Somite....
    - Segment
  27. What Class does the Subclass - Diplopoda belong to?
    Class - Myriapoda (many legs)
  28. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Uniramia
    Class - Myriapoda
    Subclass - Diplopoda
    • 1. Millipedes (thousand leggers)
    • 2. Herbivorous scavengers
    • 3. 2 legs per somite
    • 4. Slow moving - Warning coloration common - hydrocyanic acid
  29. Phylum - Arthropoda
    Subphylum - Uniramia
    Class - Hexapoda (=Insecta)
    • 1. Six legs located on thethorax
    • 2. Three distinct tagmata - heat, thorax, abdomen
    • 3. Predaceous, herbivores, parasites, etc.
    • 4. First animals to exploit the sky (ability to fly)
    • 5. Hemimetabolous vx. Holometabolous
    • 6. Dioecious.
  30. What class do insects belong to?
    Class - Hexapoda (Insecta)
  31. What Order do butterflies,and moths belong to?
    Order - Lepidoptera
  32. What Order do beetles belong to?
    Order - Coleoptera
  33. What Order do termites belong to?
    Order - Isoptera
  34. What Order do dragonflies belong to?
    Order- Odonata
  35. What Order do grasshoppers and crickets belong to?
    Order - Orthoptera
  36. What Order do bees, wasps, and ants belong to?
    Order - Hymenoptera
  37. What Order do cicads belong to?
    Order - Homoptera
  38. What Order do true bugs (stink bugs) belong to?
    Order - Hemiptera
  39. What Order do flies belong to?
    Order - Diptera
  40. What Order do praying mantis belong to?
    Order - Mantoda
  41. What Subphylum do the Class - Hexapoda belong to?
    Subphylum - Uniramia
  42. Eusocial...
    • - Truly social animals
    • - Termites, bees, wasps, and ants or examples
  43. Two types of insect development....
    • - Hemimetabolous development
    • - Holometabolous development
  44. Hemimetabolous development.....
    - organism is like a miniature adult, growing, and molting as its body enlarges. Larvae ar called nymphs (ex. Grasshopper)
  45. Holometabolous development....
    - adult oranism loods nothinglikeyounger organism. Larvae are called caterpillers. (ex. Butterflies/moths)
  46. Ecdysis....
    - Molting (Phylum - Arthropoda)

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