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Primary storage is provided by devices call memory?located on the motherboard and on some adaptor cards
The ____ or system timer is dedicated to timing the activities of the chips on the motherboard.
In the world of computers, the term ____ refers to the computer’s physical components, such as the monitor, keyboard, motherboard, and hard drive.
To perform a computing task, software uses hardware for four basic functions: ____.
input, processing, storage, and output
Data and instructions are stored on special ROM (read-only memory) chips on the board and are called the ____.
Most ____ drives consist of a sealed case containing platters or disks that rotate at a high speed.
The printer produces output on paper, often called ____ copy.
Everything in a computer is ____.
SB ____ drives are compact, easy to use, and currently hold up to 64 GB of data.
A ____ bus port can be used by many different input/output devices, such as keyboards, printers, scanners, and digital cameras.
The ____ card, also called a graphics card, provides one or more ports for a monitor
A device that is not installed directly on the motherboard is called a(n) ____ device.
The ____ card provides a port for a network cable to connect the PC to a network.
The ____ card provides a port for a network cable to connect the PC to a network.
The ____ is a group of microchips on the motherboard that control the flow of data and instructions to and from the processor.
A(n) ____ drive is considered standard equipment on most computer systems today because most software is distributed on CDs or DVDs.
A 1 or 0 in this system is called a ____.
The term ____ refers to the set of instructions that directs the hardware to accomplish a task.
Most input/output devices communicate with components inside the computer case through a wireless connection or through cables attached to the case at a connection called a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ is a set of rule and standards that any two entities use for communication.
The most important component of the computer’s electrical system is the ____, which is usually near the rear of the case.
____ are small programs stored on the hard drive that tell the computer how to communicate with a specific hardware device such as a printer, network card, or modem.
A(n) ____ is software that controls a computer.
The ____ dialog box in Windows Vista appears each time a user attempts to perform an action that can be done only with administrative privileges.
User Account Control
The ____ is usually on the right side of the taskbar and displays open services.
Windows identifies file types primarily by the ____.
From the ____ window, you can change the read-only, hidden, archive, and indexing attributes of the file.
A ____ interface is an interface that uses graphics as compared to a command-driven interface
An applet has a ____ file extension.
A ____ is one or more characters following the last period in a filename, such as .exe, .txt, or .avi.
The OS ____ is responsible for interacting with hardware.
Vista has a new 3D user interface called the ____ user interface.
The ____ interface between the subsystems in user mode and the HAL.
A ____ makes it possible to boot a computer into one of two installed OSs.
A(n) ____ is a low-end inexpensive laptop with a small 9- or 10-inch screen and no optical drive.
A ____ is a single task, such as the task of printing a file, that the process requests from the kernel.
In 1986, ____ was introduced and quickly became the most popular OS among IBM computers and IBM-compatible computers using the Intel 8086 processors.
A(n) ____ is the portion of an OS that relates to the user and to applications.
The ____ is normally located at the bottom of the Windows desktop, displaying information about open programs and providing quick access to others.
A(n) ____ is a list of items that is used to speed up a search.
Windows offers two ways to sync files: ____.
Briefcase and Offline Files
The ____ is a measure of resistance to electricity.
The ____ form factor is a major variation of ATX and addresses some technologies that have emerged since the original development of ATX.
A ____ color or stripe down one side of a cable marks this side of the cable as pin 1.
Older hard drives use a(n) ____-conductor IDE ribbon cable.
A ____ of the house current might cause symptoms of electrical power problems.
Motherboards that support PCI Express and have the 24-pin P1 connector are sometimes called ____ boards
Some video cards use a(n) ____ that helps to hold the card securely in the slot.
The first ATX power supplies and motherboards used a single power connector called the ____ connector that had 20 pins.
The ____ provides backup power in the event that the AC fails completely.
uninterruptible power supply
____ connections inside the computer case can cause a system to appear dead or reboot itself.
A(n) ____ is a general-purpose tool that can measure several characteristics of electricity in a variety of devices
A ____ is an electronic device that can hold an electrical charge for a period of time and can smooth the uneven flow of electricity through a circuit.
A system might have up to ____ types of ribbon cables.
A power ____ is a box inside a computer case that supplies power to the motherboard and other installed devices.
___ is running a processor, motherboard, or video card at a higher frequency than the manufacturer recommends and is not considered a best practice.
One ____ is the work or energy required to produce one watt of power in one second.
A ____ case sits upright on the floor or a desk and can be as high as two feet and has room for several drives.
A(n) ____ might solve the problem of intermittent errors caused by noise in the power line to the PC.
For an older motherboard, instead of screws you’ll see ____ that keep the board from resting directly on the bottom of the computer case.
The ____ form factor was designed by Intel in 2003 for flexibility and can be used by everything from large tower systems to those ultrasmall-systems that sit under a monitor.
On the motherboard, the ____ controls power to the motherboard and must be connected for the PC to power up.
Sometimes documentation marks pin 1 as a ____ pin in the diagram, rather than round like the other pins.
For Windows XP, Ntldr is responsible for loading the OS, and is, therefore, called the ____.
boot loader program
A(n) ____ boot involves turning on the power with the on/off switch.
Earlier Pentiums used a ____ socket, with pins aligned in uniform rows around the socket.
pin grid array
The ____ have a lever that is used to lift the processor up and out of the socket.
zero insertion force sockets
Access to a computer can be controlled using a ____ password.
The process of upgrading or refreshing the ROM BIOS chip is called ____ BIOS.
Some cases have ____, also called spacers, which are round plastic or metal pegs that separate the motherboard from the case, so that components on the back of the motherboard do not touch the case.
Throughput is sometimes called ____.
The ____ menu in BIOS setup allows you to configure automatic power-saving features for your system, such as suspend mode or a sleep state.
With any installation, remember the importance of using a ground strap (ground bracelet) to ground yourself when working inside a computer case to protect components against ____.
Most likely when you first install a hard drive or an operating system, you will want to have the BIOS attempt to first boot from a ____.
Later sockets used a ____, with pins staggered over the socket to squeeze more pins into a small space.
staggered pin grid array
At the beginning of the boot drive (usually drive C) is the OS ____ record.
The ____ and the chipset determine which processors a board can support.
____ buses have been improved several times; there are currently three major categories and within each category, several variations of the bus.
A ____ is the most complicated component in a computer.
The slower end of the hub in the Intel i800 chipsets, called the ____, contains the I/O controller hub.
The most popular method of cooling overclocked processors is a(n) ____.
liquid cooling system
Laptops use a smaller version of a DIMM called a(n) ____.
Processors can sense their operating temperatures and report that information to ____.
____ hold counters, data, instructions, and addresses that the ALU is currently processing.
RAM on motherboards today is stored on ____.
Installing more than one processor on a motherboard creates a ____.
Intel’s current families of processors for the desktop include four major groups: ____.
the Core, the Pentium, the Celeron, and the Atom families
If you have Rambus memory, what do you put in memory slots that are unused?
Intel’s ____ allows each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package.
The CMOS battery failure can be reported by startup BIOS during the ____.
____ loses its data rapidly, and the memory controller must refresh it several thousand times a second.
A ____ is a heat sink carrying an electrical charge that causes it to act as an electrical thermal transfer device.
If a power-on password has been forgotten, you can use the BIOS ____ to reset the password
Intel and AMD both recommend a ____ air guide as part of the case design.
____ is used for a memory cache and is contained within the processor housing
The cooler sits on top of the processor and consists of a fan and a heat ____, which are fins that draw heat away from the processor.
Using the ____ technology, the Intel processor, chipset, and wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit, which improves laptop performance.
The current set of standards that is used by BIOS, hardware, and the OS to manage power is ____.
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
The temperature inside the case should not exceed ____ degrees C.
A Rambus memory module is called a(n) ____.
Each side, or surface, of one hard drive platter is called a
The first sector on the disk, called the boot sector or ____ record, contains the information about how the disk is organized and the file system used.
The ____-conductor IDE cable has half the number of pins as it has wires.
With ____, two hard drives are configured as a single volume.
When using an 80-conductor cable-select cable, the drive nearest the motherboard is the ____.
A technology that configures two or more hard drives to work together as an array of drives is called ____.
During the ____ formatting process, you specify the size of the partition and what file system it will use.
____ on a circuit board inside the drive housing is responsible for writing and reading data to these tracks and sectors and for keeping track of where everything is stored on the drive.
____ is a system BIOS feature that monitors hard drive performance, disk spin up time, temperature, distance between the head and the disk, and other mechanical activities of the drive in order to predict when the drive is likely to fail.
If you are mounting a hard drive into a bay that is too large, a ____ kit can help you securely fit the drive into the bay.
A ____ drive has one, two, or more platters, or disks, that stack together and spin in unison inside a sealed metal housing that contains firmware to control reading and writing data to the drive and to communicate with the motherboard.
A drive ____ is a duplication of everything written to a hard drive.
____ transfers data directly from the drive to memory without involving the CPU.
With ____, you can connect and disconnect a drive while the system is running.
The total number of ____ on the drive determines the drive capacity.
The ATA interface standards are developed by Technical Committee T13 and published by
External ____ is up to six times faster than USB or FireWire.
____ is a standard for communication between a subsystem of peripheral devices and the system bus.
Windows Vista technology that supports a hybrid drive is called ____.
The top and bottom of each disk of a magnetic hard drive have a(n) ____ that moves across the disk surface as all the disks rotate on a spindle.
Chips sometimes loosen because of temperature changes; this condition is called ____.
IEEE 1394 uses ____ data transfer, meaning that data is transferred continuously without breaks.
Devices and their device drivers are managed using ____.
If you are trained to open a monitor case to replace a fuse, unplug the monitor and wait at least ____ minutes before opening the case so that capacitors have completely discharged.
Problems with a device can sometimes be solved by updating the ____ or firmware.
A ____ device is an input device that inputs biological data about a person, which can be input data to identify a person’s fingerprints, handprints, face, voice, eye, and handwritten signature.
____ systems and peripherals have the U.S. Green Star, indicating that they satisfy certain energy-conserving standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
To protect the data on a USB storage device while removing it, double-click the ____ icon in the notification area before removing the device.
Safely Remove Hardware
Ports on the motherboard can be disabled or enabled in ____ setup
____ supports speeds up to 400 Mbps and is sometimes called FireWire 400.
____ can use cables up to 100 meters (328 feet), and uses a 9-pin rectangular connector.
If you have an available eSATA external port, you can use a protective hard drive ____ that will house and protect a hard drive outside the computer case.
A(n) ____ monitor (also called a progressive monitor) draws the entire screen in one pass.
A ____ plug is a tool used to test a serial, parallel, USB, network, or other port.
A serial port is provided by the motherboard or might be provided by an adapter card called a(n) ____ card.
FireWire and i.Link are common names for another peripheral bus officially named ____.
BIOS manages ____ lines that are used by a device to hail the CPU asking for data to be processed.
The ____ assignments refer to the system resources a parallel port will use to manage a print job.
A ____ is an input device that uses a monitor or LCD panel as the backdrop for input options.
For laptops, you can adjust the brightness of the display using ____ keys.
A double-sided, double-layer DVD can hold ______ GB of data.
Computers store data digitally and ultimately as a stream of only two numbers: ____.
- 0 and 1
A video ____ card lets you capture this video input and save it to a file on your hard drive.
For EIDE, there are four choices for drive installations:
primary master, primary slave, secondary master, and secondary slave
When burning a CD, DVD or BD, the hard drive needs some temporary holding space for the write process and should have at least ____ of free space.
A ____ card can turn your computer into a television
____ is a set of standards that are used to represent music in digital form.
____ drives are a great method of keeping backups of data stored on your hard drive.
A ____ provides slots for memory cards and can be an internal or external device.
____ are recessed areas on the surface of an optical disc.
When installing an optical drive, for a PATA interface set the jumper on the ____ of the drive.
If a disc gets stuck in the drive, use the ____ to remove it.
emergency eject hole
To prevent a CD, DVD, or BD from automatically playing when AutoPlay is enabled, hold down the ____ key when inserting a disc.
n order to read each sector on the spiral of a CD at a constant ____, the disc spins faster when the read-write head is near the center of the disc.
MP3 sound files have a(n) ____ file extension.
____ are smooth and level areas on an optical disc.
After the sound is recorded and digitized, many sound cards convert and compress the digitized sound to ____ format.
A CD can hold about ____ of data
____ is a common compression standard for storing photos.
A single-sided, single-layer DVD can hold ______ GB of data
To keep boot sector viruses at bay, in ____ you can disable the ability to write to the boot sector of the hard drive.
As you solve computer problems, always keep in mind that you don’t want to make things worse, so you should use the ____ invasive solution.
To dispose of ____ do physical damage to the device then put in the trash.
Storage media such as hard drives, CDs, DVDs and BDs
To find out what to do if you are accidentally exposed to a dangerous solution, look on the instructions printed on the can or check out the material ____ sheet.
____ are intended to legally protect the intellectual property rights of organizations or individuals to creative works, which include books, images, and software.
A ____ explains how to properly handle substances such as chemical solvents
Material Safety Data Sheet
If you want to recover lost data on a hard drive, don’t ____ the drive.
write anything to
The ____ was designed in part to protect software copyrights by requiring that only legally obtained copies of software be used.
Federal Copyright Act of 1976
When someone purchases software from a software vendor, that person has only purchased a ____ for the software, which is the right to use it.
The rule ____ is the most powerful.
divide and conquer
Proper ____ is essential to keeping a system cool.
Dispose of ____ in the regular trash.
Alkaline batteries, including AAA, AA, A, C, D, and 9-volt
User manuals and ____ for a device or software often list symptoms of problems with possible solutions and troubleshooting tips.
____, caused by lifting heavy objects, is one of the most common injuries that happen at work
Most CRT monitors today are designed to discharge after sitting unplugged for ____ minutes.
Good ____ helps you take what you learned into the next troubleshooting situation, train others, develop effective preventive maintenance plans, and satisfy any audits or customer or employer queries about your work.
____ from cigarettes can accumulate on fans, causing them to jam, which in turn will cause the system to overheat
Dispose of ____ by returning them to the original dealer or by taking them to a recycling center.
Button batteries used in digital cameras
Good ____ help(s) you think more clearly.
The right to copy the work, called a ____, belongs to the creator of the work or others to whom the creator transfers this right.
The ____ command creates a subdirectory under a directory.
When a hard drive is first sensed by Windows, it is assigned the ____ disk status.
The ____ command is used to copy the information from the old computer to a server or removable media.
To make sure the drive is healthy, you need to search for and repair file system errors using the Windows ____ utility.
A Windows domain is a type of ____ network, which is a network where resources are managed by a centralized computer.
Besides backing up user data or system files, you can also back up the entire hard drive using Windows Vista ____.
Complete PC Backup
When you back up the system state, the registry is also backed up to the folder ____.
To convert a FAT32 volume to an NTFS volume, first back up all important data on the drive and then use this command at a command prompt: ____, where D: is the drive to be converted.
convert D: /FS:NTFS
Upgrading to a better edition of Vista can easily be accomplished by using the ____ feature.
Windows Anytime Upgrade
If you are having problems with a hard drive, volume, or mounted drive, check ____ for events about the drive that might have been recorded there.
A ____ computer is software that simulates the hardware of a physical computer.
A Windows ____ is a logical group of computers and users that share resources, where administration, resources, and security on a workstation are controlled by that workstation.
During a normal Windows XP installation, setup causes the system to reboot ____ times.
____ creates restore points at regular intervals and just before you install software or hardware.
A(n) ____ server is used to hold the setup files on a Windows CD or DVD on the network and then at each PC, you can execute the Setup program on the server.
A ____ is a copy of the entire volume on which Windows is installed to another bootable media such as CDs or USB drive.
The user folder for an account contains a group of subfolders called the user ____.
A snapshot of the system settings and configuration is called a ____.
The Windows utility ____ is used to remove configuration settings, such as the computer name that uniquely identifies the PC.
A dynamic disk requires ____ MB of storage for the disk management database.
After you boot into Safe Mode, you can use the ____ commands to verify system files and clean the hard drive.
SFC, Chkdsk, and Defrag
Use the ____ command to repair the file system and recover data from bad sectors.
chkdsk C: /r
Use the Windows Vista ____ tool to deal with an immediate hardware or software problem.
Problem Reports and Solutions
You can use the Windows RE command prompt window to restore registry files using those saved in the ____ folder
The ____ tool can be used to direct information about drivers to a file, including information about digital signatures.
The key that loads services and drivers can be found in the ____ location.
You can quickly identify a problem with memory or eliminate memory as the source of a problem by using the ____ tool.
Vista Memory Diagnostics
n the Recovery Console, the command ____ deletes a directory.
For a laptop or other brand-name computer, don’t forget to reinstall Windows using recovery CDs provided by
the computer manufacturer
Use the ____ tool to test memory.
For essential hardware devices, use the ____ to verify and replace system files
System File Checker
When you see the Microsoft progress bar appear, you know the ____, including all critical services and drivers, has loaded.
The ____ is used when Windows 2000/XP does not start properly or hangs during the load.
During a reinstallation, Vista setup will move all folders of the old installation into the ____ folder.
Press ____ at startup to display the Advanced Boot Options menu.
The Vista Advanced Boot Options menu appears when a user presses ____ as Vista is loading.
The ____ Configuration is updated after you log on normally to Vista
Last Known Good
The error ____ is caused by a driver or service making an illegal access to memory.
Stop 0x0A or IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL
The command ____ searches for and replaces corrupted system files.
Enter the command ____ to see a list of all services currently installed, which includes device drivers.
Apple Computer calls 802.11b ____.
A ____ is a device that manages traffic between two networks.
A ____ is the gateway a computer uses to access another network if it does not have a better option.
____ is a standard for short-range wireless communication and data synchronization between devices.
If you have a problem with connecting to a secured Web site from a corporate network, you might be using the wrong ____ server on the network.
Because electrical interference can be a problem with VoIP phones, each network cable connected to a VoIP phone needs a(n) ____ clamp attached.
When a Remote ____ session is opened, all local users are logged off.
When setting up a VoIP system, know that each digital phone or ATA must be programmed with a phone number from the ____.
Networking happens in ____.
A ____ IP address is assigned for the current connection only.
____ is essential to keep others from hacking into your wireless data and to prevent unauthorized use of your wireless LAN.
Remote ____ can help you support users and their computers from a distance.
To connect to the Internet, a network first connects to an ____.
Internet Service Provider
To find out what your DNS server knows about the domain name www.microsoft.com, use the ____ command.
The ____ for a cellular network is a fixed transceiver and antenna.
The ____ command can display TCP/IP configuration information and refresh the IP address.
A(n) ____ is a group of four dotted decimal numbers such as 255.255.0.0 that tells TCP/IP if a computer’s IP address is on the same or a different network.
Remote ____ gives a user access to his or her Windows desktop from anywhere on the Internet.
The solution for securing private data traveling over a public network is a ____.
virtual private network
The command to flush the DNS cache kept on the computer is ____.
A(n) ____ account has complete access to the system and can make changes that affect the security of the system and other users.
____ on a motherboard offers security features including power-on passwords, support for intrusion-detection devices, and support for a TPM chip.
Because of the problem of losing encrypted data and Internet passwords when a user password is reset, each new user should create a password ____ disk for use in the event the user forgets the password
A(n)____ password means it is not easy to guess by both humans and computer programs designed to hack passwords.
A $ at the end of the folder name creates a(n) ____ share.
The ____ command can be used to encrypt, decrypt, or recover an encrypted file when the certificates are lost.
A network ____ map is one of the most powerful and versatile methods of communicating over a network.
You can recognize a program as a counterfeit process if it’s not running under System, Local Service, or ____.
A rootkit running in ____ mode intercepts the API calls between the time when the API retrieves the data and when it is displayed in a window.
A ____ virus is a combination of a boot sector virus and a file virus and can hide in either.
A Trojan sometimes installs a ____ in the system, which is a hidden way to allow malware to reach the system in secret even after the Trojan has been removed.
The International Organization for Standardization has developed two documents (____), which describe, in detail, the recommended standards to secure computer resources.
ISO 17799 and ISO 27002
A ____ is assigned by a Certification Authority, and is used to prove you are who you say you are.
Folders and files stored on a workstation or server that contain user data need to be classified as to the ____ assigned to the data.
____ is any annoying and unwanted program that might or might not mean you harm.
To know for sure exactly which permissions for a file or folder are in effect, see the ____ tab of the Advanced Security Settings box.
The term ____ applies to a kit or set of tools used originally on UNIX computers.
Certificates are managed using the ____ console.
If viruses are launched even after you boot in Safe Mode and you cannot get the AV software to work, try searching for suspicious entries in the subkeys under ____.
The best way to change inherited permissions is to change the permissions of the ____.
When you print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer printer, it creates a(n) ____ file.
Printer ____ is updated by replacing the printer’s DIMM that contains the code or by downloading the update from the manufacturer’s Web site.
Do not use less than ____-LB paper in any type of printer, unless the printer documentation specifically says that a lower weight is satisfactory.
Check ____ for recorded events that have to do with the printer or the port it is using.
A laser printer can produce better-quality printouts than a dot matrix printer, even when printing at the same dpi, because it can vary the size of the dots it prints, creating a sharp, clear image using a technology called ____.
A ____ printer connects directly to a computer by way of a USB port, parallel port, serial port, wireless connection (Bluetooth, infrared, or Wi-Fi), IEEE 1394 (FireWire) port, SCSI port, PC Card, or ExpressCard connection.
Automatically printing on both sides of the page is called ____ printing.
In a laser printer, the fuser should last for about ____ pages
___ printers work by placing toner on an electrically charged rotating drum and then depositing the toner on paper as the paper moves through the system at the same speed the drum is turning.
Manufacturers of high-end printers provide ____ kits, which include specific printer components, step-by-step instructions for performing maintenance, and any special tools or equipment you need to do maintenance.
A dedicated device or computer called a print ____ can control several printers connected to a network
A printer ____ page generally prints some text, some graphics, and some information about the printer, such as the printer resolution and how much memory is installed.
A(n) ____ printer uses solid dyes embedded on different transparent films.
____ is a language used to communicate how a page is to print and was developed by Adobe Systems.
____ printers tend to smudge on inexpensive paper, and they are slower than laser printers.
Several print jobs can accumulate in the queue, which you can view in the Vista Printers window or the XP Printers and Faxes window in a process called ____.
____ printers use wax-based ink that is heated by heat pins that melt the ink onto paper. The print head containing these heat pins is as wide as the paper.
To know the IP address of a network printer, direct the printer to print a ____ page.
To find out how many pages a printer has printed so that you know if you need to do the maintenance, you need to have the printer give you the ____ count since the last maintenance.
When cleaning a printer, to prevent the inkjet nozzles from drying out, don’t leave the ink cartridges out of their cradle for longer than ____ minutes.
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