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  1. Tokugawa Ieyasu
    daiymo that profited from the reunification of Japan shortly after 1600; established the Tokugawa bakufu which would govern for over 200 centuries
  2. Asanu Takumi no kami Naganori
    daiymo of the Ako domain in 1675 who in his dying days would appoint his brother as his heir since he had no children; known as the person who triggered a series of events recalled in the story of Chushingura
  3. Kira Kosuke no suke Yoshinaka
    was master of ceremonies (koke) famously known as the adversary of Asano Naganori in the events of the forty-seven Ronin. assigned the task of tutoring Asano Naganori but according to stories he was corrupt and demanded bribes for the tutoring, which Asano would not pay. Kira started insulting Asano, and one day Asano pulled his sword and attempted killed him for all of the insults; Kira would survive and not be punished, asira was exhiled
  4. Oishi Kuranosuke no suke Yoshio
    chamberlain of the Ako Domain; known as the leader of the forty seven Ronin and the hero of the Chushingura; served Asano Naganori; role of chamberlain was very important as he was defacto ruler of the estate when the daiymo was away; would hide away in a geisha house while plotting to hill Kira; launched his attack two years later and killed and decapitated Kira
  5. Commodore Matthew Perry
    commodore to the US Navy and played an important role in opening Japan to the west with the Convention of Kanagawa; was sent in search of a Japanese trade treaty but imposed on Japans heirarchical culture by meeting with the Tokugawa shogunate who told him to proceed to Nagasaki
  6. Gongen Sama
    means "temporary revelation" and is applied to Shinto dieties when adopted by Buddhism and "temporary revelations" as one or other of the great Buddhas.
  7. Ii Naosuke
    chief minister of the bakufu who was assassinated; prior to his death the bakufu generally kept control over external and internal developements
  8. Bushi
    is a Japanese word which is used to describe a uniquely Japanese code of conduct and a way of the samurai life, loosely analogous to the concept of chivalry. It originates from the samurai moral code and stresses frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and honor unto death
  9. Samurai
    is the term for military nobility of preindustrial Japan; by the 12th century the term became synonymous with the term Bushi
  10. Mito Tokugawa
    was a prominent diaymo who was known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period; third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa and succeeded him becoming the second diaymo of the Mito domain
  11. Yamaga Soko
    was a japanese philosopher and strategist during the Tokugawa shogunate; he was a Confucian who applied Confucian's idea of the "superior man" to the samurai class of Japan. This became an imporant part of the samurai way of life and code of conduct called the Bushido
  12. Ogyu Sorai
    • great Confucian scholar who noted that people were consuming now and paying later; also recognized that
    • this was a time in human history in which money was indespensible
  13. Osaka Castle
    initially began to be built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and was originally modeled after the headquarters of Oda Nobunaga, however it was to far exceed it.
  14. Edo
    is the former name of Tokyo and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate;
  15. Nagasaki
    founded by the portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village and would eventually become the center of Portuguese and other European people's influence in the 16th century; area where trade with China was conducted
  16. Nijo Castle
    castle built by Oda Nobunga in 1575 that was built to resist attacks by firearms; prior to this castles had been little more than temporary fortifications on hilltops; consisted of moats and towers
  17. Ako
    city located in the southwest of the Hyogo prefecture and during the Edo period was the capital of the Ako han. was a small han of 50,000 but rich thanks to salt production; place where daiymo Asano once lived
  18. Satsuma
    district located in the Kagoshima Prefecture; shimazu family lived here
  19. Choshu
    was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867) occupying the whole of modern day Yamaguchi Prefecture; The domain played a major role in the Late Tokugawa shogunate.
  20. Tosa
    was a province in southern Shikoku, part of the Kochi Prefecture
  21. Battle of Sekigahara
    popularly known as the Battle for the Sundered which cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa bakufu, the last shogunate to control Japan. Japan then had a long period of peace after that battle.
  22. Battles of Osaka
    was a series of battles undertaken by the Tokugawa shogunate against the Toyotomi clan, and ending in that clan's destruction. Divided into two stages (winter and summer campaign) the siege put an end to the last major armed opposition to the shogunate's establishment.
  23. Bakuhan
    was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyo.
  24. Koke
    was a noble ranking below a daimyo in Japan during the Edo period. Their lands were assessed at less than ten thousand koku, making them ineligible for the rank of daimyo; they carried the shogun's messages to the Imperial court in Kyoto; they treated the Imperial envoys at Edo; they represented the Shogun at certain ceremonies in Nikkō; they regulated the ceremonies to be observed in the shogunal palace.
  25. diamyo
    is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings. Subordinate only to the shogun, daimyo were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan.
  26. sankin kotai
    was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history.[1] The purpose was to control the daimyo. In adopting the policy, the shogunate was continuing and refining similar policies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In 1635, a law required sankin-kōtai, which was already an established custom. The law remained in force until 1862.
  27. Sokoku
    was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which no foreigner could enter nor could any Japanese leave the country on penalty of death. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39 and remained in effect until 1853 with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry and the opening of Japan. It was still illegal to leave Japan until the Meiji Restoration
  28. Kaikoku
    The treaty followed the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa, arris' emphasis (and threat) of the inevitable defeat of the resisting Japanese by the British and the French was enough to convince many of the kaikoku members of the Tokugawa Shogunate to agree to the terms of the United States, no matter how unfavorable they were. The memory of China's overwhelming defeat was too close to be ignored
  29. Opium Wars
    Were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire
  30. Bakamatsu
    Literally "end of the curtain", are the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate came to an end. It is characterized by major events occurring between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and transitioned from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government.
  31. Bakufu
    The term bakufu originally meant the dwelling and household of a shogun, but in time it came to be generally used for the system of government of a feudal military dictatorship, exercised in the name of the shogun; and this is the meaning that has been adopted into English through the term "shogunate".
  32. Shimbara Rebellion
    was an uprising largely involving Japanese peasants, most of them Catholic Christians, in 1637–1638 during the Edo period. It was one of only a handful of instances of serious unrest during the relatively peaceful period of the Tokugawa shogunate's rule
  33. Fumie
    was a likeness of Jesus or Mary upon which the religious authorities of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan required suspected Christians to step on in order to prove that they were not members of that outlawed religion.[1] The use of fumi-e began with the persecution of Christians in Nagasaki in 1629
  34. kirishitan
    referred to Roman Catholic Christians in Japanese and is used as a historiographic term for Roman Catholics in Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries
  35. Koku
    is a Japanese unit of volume, equal to ten cubic shaku. In this definition, 3.5937 koku equal one cubic meter
  36. Kabuki
    is classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers.
  37. Banraku
    is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684
  38. Sono Joi
    is a Japanese political philosophy and a social movement derived from Neo-Confucianism; it became a political slogan in the 1850s and 1860s in the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa bakufu, during the Bakumatsu
  39. musha no narai
    "way of the warriors of the Bando"
  40. Tempo reform
    unsuccessful attempt by the Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868) to restore the feudal agricultural society that prevailed in Japan at the beginning of its rule
  41. Kansei Reform
    series of conservative measures promoted (largely during the Kansei era [1789–1801]) by the Japanese statesman Matsudaira Sadanobu between 1787 and 1793 to restore the sinking financial and moral condition of the Tokugawa government.
  42. Kyoho Reforms
    • were an array of economic policies introduced by the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1736 Japan.[1] These reforms were instigated by the eighth Tokugawa shogun of Japan, Tokugawa Yoshimune, encompassing the first twenty years of his shogunate.
    • The reforms were aimed at making the shogunate financially solvent
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2011-12-05 22:05:33
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