Personality

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betsiie11
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Personality
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2011-12-05 17:37:10
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Psychology ch 13
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  1. The combination of all psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that define an individual and characterize the ways in which that individual relates to the world and adapts to demands constitutes the
    Personality
  2. Freud’s theory is called psychodynamic theory because it deals with the dynamic struggle that takes place between
    Parents and children
  3. Freud developed an approach to personality called
    Psychoanalytic theory
  4. You meet a psychologist who explains behavior in terms of defense mechanisms and psychosexual stages. This psychologist represents which view of personality?
    Psychoanalytic
  5. From the famous French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot, Freud got the idea that if hysterical symptoms could be removed by hypnotic suggestion, then they must be
    Psychological in nature
  6. Freud’s belief that we share with nonhuman animals the goal of survival is demonstrated in his conceptualization of the
    Sexual and aggressive instincts
  7. In Freudian theory, the level of consciousness that corresponds to our current level of awareness is the
    Conscious
  8. In the iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud’s theory?
    Conscious
  9. According to Freud, most of the human mind resides in the ____, and primitive sexual and aggressive instincts lie in the ___.
    Unconscious; unconscious
  10. According to Freudian theory, when you are asked to recall your phone number, you access your
    Preconscious
  11. In psychoanalytic theory, animal drives and instinctual pleasures are thought to be contained in the
    Id
  12. The terms id, ego, and super ego refer to which component of psychoanalytic theory?
    They describe the structure of personality
  13. Freud might say that someone who was displaying excessive aggression was acting according to his or her
    Id
  14. In psychoanalytic theory, ___ is to reality principle as ____ is to pleasure principle
    Ego; id
  15. In psychoanalytic theory, the personality structure that organizes ways to handle delays of gratification is the
    Ego
  16. At the toy store, Tamika’s ego was evident when she
    Agreed to wait until her birthday, next week, for the tricycle
  17. In the iceberg analogy, which personality structure(s) lie(s) completely below the water?
    Only the id
  18. Frank says, “My conscience is bothering me.” Using Freud’s terminology, we would say that Frank is referring to his
    Superego
  19. From a psychoanalytic perspective, someone with a very strong sense of morality might be described as having a very strong
    Superego
  20. Which part of the personality might be described as “the great compromiser”?
    The ego
  21. The superego imposes punishment in the form of
    Guilt or shame
  22. According to Freud, the major defense mechanism is
    Repression
  23. In psychoanalytic terms, motivated forgetting is also known as
    Repression
  24. Paul forgets to call his mother-in-law on her birthday. He says it just slipped his mind. In the Freudian view, this type of forgetting may represent the defense mechanism of
    Repression
  25. According to the Freud, the purpose of defense mechanisms is to
    Prevent threatening thoughts from attaining awareness
  26. Regression is
    The return of behavior that is typical of earlier stages of development
  27. After 6-year-old Samantha’s baby brother was born, she asked to drink from a bottle, just like baby Simon. This may be a case of
    Regression
  28. Ingmar’s boss ridiculed him in front of the whole office. When Ingmar returns home, he yells at his wife and children and kicks his dog. This is an example of
    Displacement
  29. Refusing to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire is
    Denial
  30. It is often said of substance abusers that the first step in recovery is admitting they have a problem. In Freudian terms, we might say they need to overcome
    Denial
  31. The politician who campaigned most vigorously against gay marriage in his state is exposed as being secretly gay. This scenario appears to be in line with which defense mechanism?
    Reaction formation
  32. When his wife asked him why he drinks so much, Joey said, “I don’t drink too much. I only drink socially. I happen to be a very social guy and so I’m always around other people.” Joey appears to justify his drinking with which defense mechanism?
    Rationalization
  33. Attributing one’s own impulses or wishes to another is called
    Projection
  34. Rapists sometimes defend their actions by saying their victim acted toward them in a sexually provocative manner. This is an example of
    Projection
  35. Unlike other young children, Benny was never bothered by the sight of blood. Infact, it fascinated him. Later, as a teen he loved gory movies. Now, as an adult he write horror-filled books that are best sellers. Benny appears to be demonstrating which defense mechanism?
    Sublimation
  36. Ruth has conflicting feelings about getting married that she has not allowed to enter her consciousness. On the night before her wedding, when her mother asks what time they need to be ready to leave the house, Ruth answers, “The hearse will be here at 9 o’clock.” Ruth’s comment is an example of a(n)
    Freudian slip
  37. Regarding Freud’s view on personality development, which of the following statements is false?
    Freud believed that boys develop womb envy and girls develop penis envy
  38. In Freudian theory, different parts of the body associated with sexual pleasure are referred to as
    Erogenous zones
  39. The psychoanalytic perspective suggests that too much or too little gratification at a psychosexual stage may result in
    Fixation
  40. Emilio’s therapist says that Emilio’s personality is fixated at the earliest stage of development. In lay terms, the therapist means that Emilio’s personality is
    Stuck at the earliest stage
  41. What is the correct ordering of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development?
    Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  42. According to Freud, the Oedipus conflict arises during which stage of psychosexual development?
    Phallic
  43. On their first date, which was to see a play at a theater, Angela decided that Alex had an anal- expulsive personality because
    He wore mismatched socks.
  44. Frederico is a perfectionist with a strong need for self- control, order, and cleanliness. Freud would describe Frederico as having a(n)
    Anal- retentive personality
  45. Francis is passive, clingy, and dependent, with a pessimistic outlook on life. In which psychosexual stage might Francis be fixated?
    Oral
  46. From Freud’s perspective, a boy resolves his Oedipus complex by
    Forsaking incestuous desires for his mother and identifying with his father
  47. Emmanuel teaches fourth graders. At which stage of psychosexual development can Emmanuel expect the majority of his students to be?
    Latency
  48. A major contribution of Jung to the psychodynamic approach was belief in
    The creative self
  49. Among neo- Freudians, ___ is to analytical psychology as ___ is to individual psychology.
    Jung; Alder
  50. Which of the following is best definition of the term archetype?
    A primitive image that reflects ancestral or universal human experiences
  51. Jung believed that similarities among cultures in dream images, art, and religious symbols are explained by the
    Collective unconscious
  52. Compared to Freud, Jung placed greater emphasis on all of the following EXCEPT
    Infantile and childhood experiences
  53. Ali is short, is thin, and has a pock-marked face. He wishes he were as tall as everyone in his seventh-grade class and that his skin were clear. Nevertheless, with his conscious effort, he has managed to become the most popular student in class by cultivating a sense of humor and an easygoing manner. Adler might say that Ali is manifesting which of the following?
    A drive for superiority
  54. According to Adler, because of their small size and limited abilities, all children harbor feelings of
    Inferiority
  55. Which neo-Freudian raised the idea that men may experience “womb envy”?
    Horney
  56. Which neo- Freudian is associated with concepts such as “inferiority complex” and “creative self”?
    Alfred Adler
  57. In Karen Horney’s theory of personality development, children may develop a form of deep resentment toward their parents. Horney labeled this
    Basic hostility
  58. The major contribution of Freud and later psychodynamic thinkers is considered to be their focus on the
    Unconscious mind
  59. The greatest limitation of psychodynamic theory, according to the text, is which of the following?
    The difficulty inherent in putting its concepts in a scientific test
  60. Freud might say that someone who was displaying excessive aggression was acting according to his or her
    Id
  61. Jung believed that similarities among cultures in dreams, art, and religious symbols are explained by the
    Collective unconscious
  62. In psychoanalytic theory, __ is to reality principle as ___ is to pleasure principle
    Ego; id
  63. Freud’s belief that we share with nonhuman animals the goal of survival is demonstrated in his conceptualization of the
    Sexual and aggressive instincts
  64. Refusing to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire is
    Denial
  65. The greatest limitation of psychodynamic theory, according to the text is which of the following?
    The difficulty inherent in putting its concepts to a scientific test
  66. Paul forgets to call his mother-in-law on her birthday. He says it just slipped his mind. In the Freudian view, this type of forgetting may represent the defense mechanism of
    Repression
  67. Frederico is a perfectionist with a strong need for self- control, order, and cleanliness. Freud would describe him as having an
    Anal-retentive personality
  68. According to Freud, the purpose of defense mechanisms is to
    Prevent threatening thoughts from attaining awareness
  69. Francis is passive, clingy, and dependent, with a pessimistic outlook on life. In which psychosexual stage might Francis be fixated?
    Oral
  70. According to Freud, the purpose of defense mechanisms is to:
    Prevent threatening thoughts from attaining awareness
  71. Stable and enduring personal characteristics are called
    Traits
  72. Which of the following is true about traits?
    Traits can be used to predict behavior
  73. Who believed that personality traits are physical entities located in the brain?
    Allport
  74. Mahatma Gandhi’s commitment to nonviolent solutions to social problems is an example of what kind of trait?
    Cardinal
  75. In Allport’s view, cardinal traits are
    The most pervasive characteristics of one’s personality
  76. Allport proposed ___ types of traits in personality, and they are called ____.
    Three; cardinal, central, and secondary traits
  77. Which of the following people is described a secondary trait in Allport’s model?
    Bettina, who says, “I like rap music, and I don’t like country music.”
  78. According to Allport, secondary traits
    Reflect superficial differences between people.
  79. In Cattell’s model, characteristics of personality that can be inferred from behavior are called
    Surface traits
  80. Cathleen takes the 16PF test of personality. This test will measure Cathleen’s ___ traits.
    Source
  81. Who developed the 16PF personality test?
    Cattell
  82. In a study of the 16 PF results of writers, airline pilots, and creative artists, writers scored higher than creative artists and airplane pilots on which factors of personality?
    Sensitive and imaginative
  83. Which theorist’s model of personality describes personality in terms of three major traits: introversion- extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism?
    Eysenck
  84. Evelyn takes a personality test that measures the following personality traits: introversion- extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Which test has Evelyn taken?
    The Esenck Personality Inventory
  85. Which of the following people is most likely to be labeled introverted-stable on the Eyseck Personality Inventory?
    Allyson, who likes to be by herself and is calm and even- tempered
  86. In Euseck’s model, stable is to neurotic as
    Even tempered is to emotional
  87. Darius scores high on psychoticism. In which way is Darius likely to be perceived by others?
    Antisocial, hostile, and insensitive
  88. Which of the following statements is true about Eysenck’s model of personality?
    Eysenck believed that biological differences are responsible for variations in personality traits
  89. Cibill takes the Eysenck Personality Inventory and finds that her “type” is extraverted-stable. Which description most likely fits Cybill?
    Lively, carefree, and sociable
  90. In research reported in the text, a group of mountain climbers scored which pattern on the EPI?
    High extraversion, low neuroticism
  91. The most widely adopted trait model of personality today is the
    Five-factor model
  92. Dr. Provost lectures to her psychology class on the “Big Five” What is the topic of Provost’s lecture?
    The five-factor model of personality
  93. In the five- factor model of personality, which two traits parallel two of Eysenck’s traits?
    Extraversion and neuroticism
  94. In order to remember the “big five” for a psychology test, Marianne took the first letter in each of the five factors and combined them to make which acronym?
    CANOE
  95. Current research on the “factors” of personality suggests that there are how many major personality factors that best describe human personality?
    Five
  96. Sasha is a thrill- seeking risk- taker. He ravels all over the world searching for unique adventures. On that basis alone, Eysenk would probably surmise that Sasha is
    Extraverted
  97. Tifara takes a personality test measuring the “Big Five” factors of personality. Results from one of the test’s subscales suggest that Tifara is conforming, practical, and conventional. Which factor is being measured with this subscale?
    Openness
  98. In the five- factor model of personality, the extent to which a person is sensitive, warm and tolerant verses callous, cold, and hostile is captured in which personality facto?
    Agreeableness
  99. Which of the following statements is true about the relationship between personality traits and psychological outcomes?
    Conscientiousness is linked to lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease
  100. A gene that regulates the neurotransmitter dopamine has been linked to which personality trait?
    Novelty-seeking
  101. The belief that behavior reflects both the ways in which situations affect people’s traits and the ways in which people’s traits affect situations is called
    Interactionism
  102. Regarding the trait perspective on personality, which of the following statements is FALSE?
    Personality tends to be fixed by the time people reach early adulthood
  103. According to the text, the MAJOR criticism of trait theories is that they
    Merely label rather than explaining personality.
  104. In the five- factor model of personality, which two traits parallel two of Eysenck’s traits?
    Extraversion and neuroticism
  105. Watson and Skinner believed that
    All behavior is learned through either classical or operant conditioning
  106. An extension of behaviorism that includes internal mental processes and the influence of other people on personality is called
    Social- cognitive theory
  107. Dr. Sloan, a behaviorist, was invited to give a lecture at a psychologists’ convention. He would be sharing the podium with four social- cognitive theorists who would likewise be presenting a lecture. Below is the list of scheduled lectures for the evening. Which of the topics is most likely to be Dr. Sloan’s lecture?
    How to predict a person’s behavior based solely on his history of rewards and punishments
  108. Social- congnitive theorists believe that personality consists of learned behavior and
    The ways that individuals think about themselves and the world
  109. The primary contributors to social-cognitive theory are
    Bandura, Rotter, and Mischel.
  110. In social- cognitive theory, expectancies are
    Personal predictions about the outcome of behavior
  111. Which of the following students is demonstrating a positive expectancy about schoolwork?
    Aston, who believes that studying, will improve his chances of getting a good grade
  112. In Rotter’s theory, a subjective value is
    The worth placed on a desired outcome
  113. Which psychological instrument did Rotter develop?
    Internal- External Scale
  114. An individual’s general belief about his or her ability to obtain reinforcements is referred to as
    Locus of control
  115. Sylvia has an internal locus of control, whereas Debbie has an external locus of control. Compared to Debbie, Sylvia is more likely to
    Adapt an exercise regimen in an effort to become healthier
  116. The idea of reciprocal determinism was developed by
    Bandura
  117. Reciprocal determinism refers to the idea that
    Cognitions, behaviors, and environmental factors influence each other
  118. Which of the following best describes Bandura’s ideas about the relationship among behavior, cognition, and environment
    Cognitions, behaviors, and the environment mutually influence each other
  119. Which type of learning did Bandura emphasize in his social- cognitive theory?
    Observational learning
  120. Shawn is more likely to smoke marijuana in situations where he believes it will make him more relaxed than in situations where he feels he will make a fool of himself. Shawn’s idea about smoking marijuana reflect his
    Outcome expectations
  121. Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed at obtaining his bachelor’s degree. Albert Bandura would categorize Herschel’s beliefs as
    Efficacy expectations
  122. Self-efficacy can handicap performance when it leads to
    Overconfidence
  123. The modeling aspect of Bandura’s social-cognitive theory was put into practice in Mexico and Tanzania to persuade people to follow the lead of models demonstrating which respective behaviors?
    Literacy and safe sex
  124. Which social- cognitive theorist argues that behavior is influenced by situation variables and person variables?
    Walter Mischel
  125. In Mischel’s theory, which person variable involves the ability to plan courses of action to achieve goals and obtain rewards?
    Self- regulatory systems and plans
  126. Social cognitive theorist Mischel’s most recent work focuses on the
    Interaction of emotions and person variables
  127. According to the text, the most important contribution of the social- cognitive perspective has been
    The notion that people are active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences
  128. Learning theory is to behavior therapy as social- cognitive theory is to
    Cognitive- behavioral therapy
  129. Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed at obtaining his bachelor’s degree. Albert Bandura would categorize Herschel’s beliefs as
    Efficacy expectations
  130. Who are the two main contributors to the humanistic perspective?
    Maslow and Rodgers
  131. In the humanistic perspective, realization of one’s own potential is known as
    Self- actualization
  132. The U.S. Army’s slogan “Be all that you can be” is most consistent with which concept from personality theory?
    Self- actualization
  133. According to humanistic psychologists, personality is
    The conscious direction of one’s self toward achieving his or her own unique potential
  134. In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory is
    More positive and includes the idea of free will
  135. The impressions you have of yourself are your ___, whereas the degree of liking you have for yourself is your ___
    Self-concept; self- esteem
  136. Sonia showed her daughter CONDITIONAL positive regard when she said,
    “If you share the doll with your sister, mommy will love you.”
  137. Which term did Rogers use to describe acceptance of a person’s basic worth under any circumstance?
    Unconditional positive regard
  138. Generalizing from Roger’s ideas about positive regard, which tactic should parents take with their children?
    Prize their children regardless of their behavior at any particular time.
  139. A group of friends take a test examining self- concept. Other factors being equal, which person is likely to have the highest self- esteem?
    Michelle, who has a small discrepancy between her present self and her ideal self
  140. Comparing self- esteem among young African Americans with that among young White Americans, which of the following has been found
    On average, African Americans have higher levels of self- esteem than White Amerians
  141. Emma’s sense of who or what she should be is her
    Self- ideal
  142. Which of the following statements about bestowing unconditional positive regard on children is true?
    Parents should make it clear that the behavior can be bad even when the child is good
  143. Abraham Maslow believed which of the following?
    That the drive toward self- actualization shapes the personality
  144. From a scientific perspective, which positive aspect of humanistic theory is also its greatest weakness?
    Its focus on conscious experience
  145. As an introductory exercise in their Social Influences course, college students are asked to share the answer they provide to the statement, “I am….” Which student is most likely to be from a collectivistic culture?
    Helen, who says, “I am Asian American.”
  146. Which of the following countries would be classified as collectivistic?
    Japan
  147. Andre is from a collectivistic culture. Compared to his cousin Amy, who is from an individualistic culture, Andre is more likely to value which of the following?
    His elders
  148. Which of the following statements regarding culture is true?
    Differences in culture values affect how people define and attain status
  149. A culture that emphasizes social roles and obligations is termed
    Collectivistic
  150. Which of the following statements about bestowing unconditional positive regard on children is true?
    Parents should make it clear that the behavior can be bad even when the child is good
  151. ____ reflects the belief that people’s character and mental abilities can be judged by the patterns of bumps on their skull is called
    Phrenology
  152. Who was known as the leading proponent of phrenology?
    Franz Joseph Gall
  153. The most widely used method for learning about personality today utilizes
    Formal personality tests
  154. In personality testing, self-report personality inventories are also known as
    Objective tests
  155. Which of the following statements is NOT true of objective personality tests?
    They use truly objective measures of personality
  156. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was designed to
    Help clinicians diagnose mental disorders
  157. For extra credit in her psychology class, Lucretia just took a 567 item self-report personality inventory admisistered by a graduate student in training. The graduate student told Lucretia that the test is the most widely used self-report personality test in the world. Which test did Lucretia take?
    MMPI-2
  158. An item such as “People have noticed that my speech is sometimes pressured or rushed” is likely to appear on which subscale of the MMPI-2
    Hypomania
  159. Which of the following is true about the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?
    It compares scores to those of diagnostic groups
  160. Callie’s therapist gives her a projective test. In her testing, Callie will be expected to respond to
    Ambiguous or unstructured stimuli
  161. The use of projective tests in measuring personality is most consistent with which perspective on personality?
    Psychodynamic
  162. Rorschach developed a famous personality test that uses what kind of stimuli?
    Inkblots
  163. Jacob and his friens like to lie around on summer days, stare up at the clouds, and tell each other what they see in the clouds. Their activity is most like which test of personality?
    The Roschach Test
  164. Rorschach Test is to ___ as Thematic Apperception Test is to ____
    Inkblots; pictures
  165. Who developed the Thematic Apperception Test?
    Henry Murray
  166. Wanda takes a personality test in which she is required to tell stories in response to a series of ambiguous pictures. Which test is Wanda taking
    Thematic Apperception Test
  167. Which of the following statements is true about the Rorschach Test?
    It has questionable reliability and validity
  168. Who introduced a comprehensive scoring system for the Rorschach Test
    John Exner
  169. What is ment by stimulus pull?
    Projective tests items contain cues that elicit certain answers
  170. Social- cognitive theorists believe that our self- esteem is related to
    Skills and competencies we have to meet challenges
  171. Kristin has low self-esteem. In order to raise it she should do which of the following?
    Cultivate goals that are consistent with her strengths and take into account her weaknesses
  172. Of the following suggestions for building self- esteem, which is most likely to have been made by Albert Ellis?
    Challenge the need for constant approval
  173. Most of the skills valued in our society are
    Capable of being achieved by most people
  174. In personality testing, self-report personality inventories are also known as
    Objective tests
  175. Who developed the Thermatic Apperception Test
    Henry Murray
  176. A culture that emphasizes social roles and obligations is termed
    Collectivistic
  177. Which theorist’s model of personality describes personality in terms of three major traits: introversion- extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism?
    Eysenck
  178. Which of the following statements regarding culture is true?
    Differences in cultural values affect how people define and attain status
  179. From a scientific perspective, which positive aspect of humanistic theory is also a greatest weakness?
    It focus on conscious experience
  180. According to Freud, most of the human mind resides in the ___ and primitive sexual aggressive instincts lie in the __
    Unconscious; unconscious

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