ID.PSYCH Test_4.txt

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ID.PSYCH Test_4.txt
2011-12-05 19:36:22

ID Psych Test_4: Fads, etc.
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  1. ________ are practices that rapidly gain popularity, gain pervasive use, and then rapidly decline in use (but do not disappear) due to disconfirming research or more often by the emergence of a new one
  2. 4 reasons fads may develop:
    • existing therapies........
    • -do not correct every problem or affect a cure
    • -are time consuming
    • -are costly
    • -require professional expertise
  3. 7 reasons why fads are believed:
    • -support by trusted authorities
    • -testimonials (anecdotes)
    • -A priori belief (proceeding from known or assumed cause)
    • -stressed parents making decisions based on emotion
    • -desire for "magic bullet" simple solution
    • -attractive spokespeople
    • -loyalty to person/beliefs
  4. ______ saves time and energy by moving us away from wishful thinking and focusing on real solutions.
    Science (is not easy, quick, absolute, or provides answers)
  5. What characteristics do fad therapies have when "treating" ID people?
    • -disconfirmed by research
    • -having no supporting research
    • -OR has supporting research with little scientific rigor / relevance
  6. ____________ interventions include megavitamin therapy and gluten-free/casein-free diets.
    Dietary fad
  7. ___________ therapy suggest that nutritional deficiencies are involved in autism and large doses of vitamins can correct neurological and immune impairment leading t improvements in behavior.
  8. __________ diets are based on the theory that children with autism have food allergies (specifically to wheat and dairy) and removing them from the child's diet produces decreases in inappropriate behavior and increases speech.
  9. _________ therapy is based on the theory that the autistic child is poisoned by some heavy metal (lead/mercury) which impairs their functioning.
  10. More recently, the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine was believed to cause mercury poisoning (it was disproved) this is an example of _________ therapy
  11. _______ therapy works by swallowing a mixture that bonds to the lead or mercury which is then flushed from the body.
  12. (based on the work of Jean Ayres) purports that this is a neurological process that organizes and interprets sensory input (specifically touch, movement, body awareness, sight, sound, and gravity). Problems with this process can cause specific behavioral and emotional problems:
    sensory integration training
  13. _______________ involves occupational therapists developing an individualized sensory �diet� consisting of tactile stimulation, purposeful movements, weighted vests, and brushing that helps correct the disorder.
    sensory integration training
  14. 5 Effects claimed by sensory integration include:
    increased self-regulation, focus, cognitive ability, homeostasis, & decreased self-injury
  15. _____________ is based on the theory that autistic children have auditory hypersensitivities that cause severe behavior and imapirs social and cognitive functioning.
    auditory integration training
  16. __________ uses devices that filter sound frequencies and claim to decrase tactile defensiveness, aggression, and picky eating & increase self-image, language, and social skill (eye contact).
    auditory integration training
  17. ______________ is a form of assisted typing or spelling that corrects an individual's inability to expressively communicate. The theory behind this is that cognitive functioning is normal and only the ability to communicate is impaired.
    Facilitated communication (FC)
  18. ____ was debunked by numerous scientific investigations when large numbers of unsubstantiated abuse claims were made through this:
    Facilitated communication (FC)
  19. Greenspan's _________ is based on the theory that autistic children cannot relate to others in a reciprocal fashion. ___ seeks to move the children through developmental milestones by using child-directed play sessions (social interaction) and communication, sensory & motor skills, and train parents as therapists.
  20. _____________ focuses on structured teaching and focusing on a student's strengths and interests rather on correcting deficits. There is a strong focus on accepting the child as they are.
    TEACHH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children)
  21. ______________ is an offshoot of Applied Behavior Analysis that claims the use of functional analysis and reinforcement procedures but avoids the use of punishment. ___ combines some aspects of behavioral science with the ideology of the non-aversive and normalization movements.
    Positive Behavior Support (PBS)
  22. Due to the large number of fads associated with autism treatment, parents often....
    incorporate multiple approaches together regardless of scientific proof.
  23. It is the responsibility of professionals to be informed of both the ___________ of their own techniques and that of other therapies
    scientific evidence
  24. It is the responsibility of professionals to make knowledge of their techniques __________ to their clients and to inform them compassionately of ____________ treatments.
    Understandable; fad or pseudo-scientific
  25. __________ is a method designed to describe and interpret phenomenon and build testable knowledge open to rejection or confirmation.
  26. ____________ is the questioning of the validity of a particular claim by calling for evidence to prove or disprove it.
  27. Types of language include ____________ and _____________. Know the difference.
    receptive; expressive ( )
  28. Children use ___________ to develop communication and social skills including facial expressions (by 1 month old), language sounds (by 6m/o), __ without needing model present (by 2 y/o) ie. drawing, writing, games
  29. Stages of language development:
    • Prelinguistic-9 months,
    • holophrasic [using 1 word]-1 year,
    • telegraphic [using 2-or-3 word combos]- 18m-2y,
    • Stage 2 Grammar-2-3 years,
    • approximating adult speech-5-6 years
  30. ______________ of children with ID include a lack of language and imitation, echolalia, pronoun reversals, and socially-inappropriate speech
    Language problems
  31. Reasons why children with ID do not _______________ include sensory, motor, or attention deficits, or a lack of prompting, verbal feedback, or reinforcement.
    learn language
  32. _________ is the performance of a behavior by one individual (the model) in the presence of an observer (the imitator).
  33. ______________ is the performance of a modeled behavior. Delayed imitation is when the model is no longer present
  34. 5 Steps to teaching through imitation include.........
    • ensuring the child is physically capable of imitating the behavior
    • gaining the child's attention
    • ensuring the model is consistent
    • using additional prompts to ensure success
    • ignoring incorrect responses and reinforcing correctly imitated responses.
  35. __________________ includes using discrete trail instruction, using the same discriminative stimulus to start, use of prompts to promote errorless learning, use of prompt fading to avoid prompt dependence, immediate and continuous reinforcement, and programming for generalization and maintenance.
    Systematic teaching of language
  36. __________ goals can be classified into matching, imitation, receptive, expressive, and conversation skills.
    language instruction
  37. 3 Approaches for non-verbal individuals include .... (know the differences)
    • Sign language
    • PECS - picture exchange communication system
    • augmetative communication devices
  38. Time delay ________ are effective in teaching language.
  39. ______________ is a less structured form of teaching than discrete trial instruction that involves using naturally occurring events in the environment as an opportunity for learning
    incidental teaching
  40. ______________ includes child-initiated speech, complete adult attention, focus on elaborating language, use of prompts and modeling to promote elaboration, and confirmation of appropriate responses.
    incidental teaching
  41. The _____________ is a method of promoting language development by reducing demand-based adult responses, increasing attention on child�s appropriate play behavior, and providing commentary on child�s play behavior.
    "Child's Game"
  42. Assessing and teaching ___________ can help promote independence, greater likelihood of socialization and normalization in community and educational settings and greater adult living opportunities.
    Self-help Skills
  43. _______________ skills include behaviors associated with eating, dressing, hygiene, and toileting. Know examples of each.
    Personal care
  44. ________________ are cues in the environment that reinforcement is available for a behavior.
    Discriminitive Stimuli - SD
  45. __________ are cues added to SD to support the delivery of a specific response.
    Prompts !
  46. ________ can include verbal, gestural, physical, modeled, stimulus fading, positional, graduated guidance and time delay.
  47. ______________ should initially be used as much as possible to ensure correct acquisition of a behavior and to reduce errors (errorless learning)
  48. ______ should be faded as quickly as possible once a skill is attained.
  49. _________ refers to changing the amount of prompting being used
  50. _______________ is the reinforcing of successive approximations of the desired goal, by repeatedly reinforcing gradual improvements and extinguishing preceding approximations.
  51. Steps in ___________ include operationally defining the final target behavior, determining the child�s current level of functioning regarding the behavior, consistently reinforcing improvements in performance, withholding reinforcement for previous responses and unrelated behaviors, and prompting correct responses.
  52. ________________ is the process of teaching individual components of a behavior and linking them together in a sequence.
  53. (In chaining) The consequence of one component serves as the ___________ of the next component in the chain.
    Discriminitive Stimulus - SD
  54. 3 types of Chaining:
    Forward, backward, & total task presentation.
  55. ___________ involves teaching the first step first and then each proceeding step. It is useful with higher functioning individuals* and those who already have the behaviors of the chain in their repertoire.
    forward chaining
  56. _____________ involves teaching the last step first and then each preceding step. It is useful for lower functioning individuals* and is effective due to the proximity to the terminal reinforcer.
    Backward chaining
  57. _______________ is performing the entire task start to finish (with prompts) until all steps are mastered.
    Total task presentation
  58. ______________ is the process of identifying and detailing the steps of a behavioral objective based on an individual�s ability.
    Task Analysis
  59. When using ___________ and _________, avoid prompt dependence by not using prompts for too long, and be consistent when multiple instructors are involved
    shaping & chaining
  60. Two prerequisites for teaching social skills are __________ and ___________.
    building rapport; increasing eye contact
  61. ________________ is is the reinforcing value of interaction between a client and others
  62. Initial steps to rapport building with children include.....
    • Proximity,
    • parallel play,
    • imitative play,
    • non-demand verbal attention (ie. "Child's Game")
    • use of tangible reinforcers paired with social attention
  63. Eye contact can be increased with _________________
    Differential Reinforcement
  64. ___________ can be taught using modeling/imitation (including video modeling and peer modeling), rehearsal (including roleplay and scripting), additional prompts, reinforcement of social skills, reduction of inappropriate behavior, use of technology as a method of prompting and generalization.
    Social Skills
  65. ___________ is a characteristic of behavior change that is lasting over time, occurs across multiple non-training environments, and affects other related behaviors.
  66. _________________ refers to the ability of an individual to perform a behavior in environments different from the training environment
    Stimulus generalization
  67. __________ is the likelihood that an individual will continue to perform a behavior when some or all an intervention is ended
  68. ____________ refers to the emergence of multiple functionally-equivalent untrained behaviors in addition to the trained response
    Response Generalization
  69. _________ can be across people, places, times, environmental stimuli and behaviors
  70. To program for generalization, begin by first teaching within a structured environment __________ to the natural environment as possible.
    as similar
  71. To promote _________, teach in multiple settings, with multiple instructors, and with multiple discriminative stimuli. Use stimulus fading.
    stimulus generalization
  72. To promote __________, teach multiple behaviors with the same concept such as imitation or verbal communication, and teach multiple examples of a functionally-equivalent response.
    response generalization
  73. To promote __________, move to intermittent schedules of reinforcement, delay reinforcement, reduce structure to resemble the natural environment, use reinforcers from the natural environment, have peers deliver reinforcement.