Chapter 14

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Chapter 14
2010-03-26 23:14:14

Politics & Government Key terms
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  1. Politics
    the social insitution through which power is acquired & exercised by some people & groups
  2. Government
    the formal organization that has the legal & political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society & between the society & those outside its borders
  3. State
    the political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals
  4. Political Sociology
    the area of the sociology that examines the nature & consequences of power within or between societies, as well the social & political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power
  5. Power
    according to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite oppostion from others
  6. Authority
    power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive
  7. Traditional Authority
    power that is legitimized on the basis of long-standing custom
  8. Charismatic Authority
    power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities
  9. Routinization of Charisma
    the process by which charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional & bureacratic authority
  10. Rational-Legal Authority
    power legitimized by law or written rules & procedures (also referred to as bureacuratic authority)
  11. Monarchy
    a political system in which power resides in one person or family & is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance
  12. Authoritarianism
    a political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government
  13. Totalitarianism
    a political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people's public & private lives
  14. Democracy
    a political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives
  15. Pluralist Model
    an analysis of political systems that views power as widely dispersed throughout many competing intrest groups
  16. Special Intrest Group
    political coalitions composed of individuals or groups that share a specific intrest that they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system
  17. Political Action Committees (PACs)
    organizations of special intrest groups that solicit contributions from donors & fund campaigns to help elect (or defeat) candidates based on their stances on specifc issues
  18. Elite Model
    a view of society that sees power in political systems as being concentrated in the hands of a small group of elites whereas the masses are relatively powerless
  19. Power Elites
    C. Wright Mill's term for the group made up of leaders at the top of business, the excutive branch of the federal government, & the military
  20. Political Party
    an organization whose purpose is to gain & hold legitimate control of government
  21. Political Socialization
    the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, & behavior
  22. Military-Industrial Complex
    the mutual interdependence of the military establishment & private military contractors
  23. Militarism
    a term used to describe a societal focus on military ideals & on aggressive preparedness for war
  24. Terrorism
    the calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective
  25. War
    organized, armed conflict between nations or distinct politicial faction