Chemical Basis of Life

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MarlieHopkins
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121116
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Chemical Basis of Life
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2011-12-05 22:31:16
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Basis Life
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Chemical Basis of Life
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  1. Number of protons constitutes the _.
    atomic number
  2. Atomic number is constituted by the _.
    number of protons
  3. Atomic number establishes the _ of the atom.
    chemical identiy
  4. Chemical identity of an atom is established by the _.
    atomic number
  5. Elements are composed of atoms that _.
    have the same atomic number
  6. Atoms that have the same atomic number compose _.
    elements
  7. Atomic weight of an atom is the _.
    sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
  8. Sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom is the _.
    atomic weight
  9. Isotopes are _.
    different forms of the same element having the same number of protons but differing in number of neutrons
  10. Different forms of the same element having the same number of protons but differing in number of neutrons are _.
    isotopes
  11. Different isotopes of the same element have different _.
    atomic weights
  12. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo a decay process in which the atoms reach a stable state by emitting _.
    high-energy particles from their nuclei
  13. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo _.
    a decay process
  14. Radioactive isotopes are _ and undergo a decay process.
    unstable
  15. Molecules result from attachment of atoms to one another by _.
    chemical bonds
  16. Molecules result from _ by chemical bonds.
    attachment of atoms to one another
  17. Result from attachment of atoms to one another by chemical bonds are _.
    molecules
  18. Compounds are composed of _.
    molecules of the same type
  19. Molecules of the same type compose _.
    compounds
  20. Chemical reactions for or break _.
    chemical bonds
  21. Chemical bonds are formed or broken by _.
    chemical reactions
  22. Forming or breaking of a chemical bond forms _.
    a new compound
  23. New compounds are the result of _.
    chemical bonds forming or breaking
  24. Chemical bonds are the result of interaction between the _.
    outer electrons of the bonded atoms
  25. Interaction between the outer electrons of the bonded atoms result in _.
    chemical bonds
  26. As the atomic number of the nucleus increases from one element to another, the energy levels _.
    fill with electrons
  27. Energy levels fill with electrons as the _ of the nucleus increases from one element to another.
    atomic number
  28. Higher energy levels are full with they contain _ electrons each.
    eight
  29. Chemical bond forms when there is interaction between _.
    orbitals of the outermost energy levels of two atoms
  30. Interaction between the outermost energy levels of two atoms forms a _.
    chemical bond
  31. Atoms are most stable when _.
    their outermost energy level is full
  32. In a covalent bond the bonded partners share _ to complete their outer energy levels.
    one or more electrons
  33. In a covalent bond, if the donor and acceptor are equally strong, each shared electron spends _.
    same amount of time with each of the two bonded atoms
  34. Shared electrons spend the same amount of time with each of the two bonded atoms if _.
    the donor and acceptor are equally strong
  35. Nonpolar bond is the result of shared electrons _.
    spending same amount of time with acceptor and donor
  36. Shared electron spending the same amount time with the donor and acceptor results in a _.
    nonpolar bond
  37. In a covalent bond: strengths of donor and acceptor are unequal, electron spends more of its time with one partner than the other resulting in a _.
    polar bond
  38. Polar bond is a result of _.
    electron spending more time with one partner than the other
  39. Atoms connected by a polar bond form _.
    electrical dipole
  40. Electrical dipole is formed by _.
    atoms connected by a polar bond
  41. Atom that has the electron more of the time is the _ pole of the dipole.
    negative
  42. Negative pole of the dipole is the _.
    atom that has the electrom more of the time
  43. Ionic bond is formed when an element that readily gives up electrons reacts with an element that _.
    readily accepts them
  44. When an element readily gives up electrons reacts with an element that readily accepts them, this forms _.
    ionic bond
  45. Ionic bonds are held together by _.
    electrical force
  46. Hydrogen bonds are the result of the fact that _ and _ bonds are polar covalent bonds.
    • hydrogen-nitrogen
    • hydrogen-oxygen
  47. Hydrogen bonds are the result of the fact that hydrogen-nitrogen and hydrogen-oxyge bonds are _ bonds.
    polar covalent
  48. Hydrogen has a small positive charge because the electron spends most of its time with _.
    oxygen or nitrogen
  49. Van der Waals forces develop between molecules or _.
    different parts of the same large molecule
  50. Van der Waals forces develop between _ or between different parts of the same large molecule.
    molecules
  51. In Van der Waals forces, an area of a molecule that temporarily becomes electron rich will _.
    be attracted to an area that is temporarily electron poor
  52. Force that develops when an area of a molecule becomes electron rich and is attracted to an area that is electron poor is _.
    Van der Waals
  53. In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more _.
    products
  54. In a chemical reaction, one or more _ are transformed into one or more products.
    reactants
  55. One or more reactants are transformed into one or more products in a _.
    chemical reaction
  56. Synthetic reactions combine two or more _ or_ to form a new compound according to the form A + B => AB.
    • elements
    • compounds
  57. Synthetic reactions combine two or more elements or compounds to form a _ according to the form A + B => AB.
    new compound
  58. Synthetic reactions combine two or more elements or compounds to form a new compound according to the form _.
    A + B => AB
  59. Two or more elements or compounds are combined to form a new compound in _ reactions.
    synthetic
  60. A + B => AB is the form for _ reactions.
    synthetic
  61. Formation of new proteins from free amino acids is an example of _ reactions.
    synthetic
  62. Deposition of bone from free calcium and phosphate is an example _ reactions.
    synthetic
  63. Sum of synthetic processes is termed _.
    anabolism
  64. Anabolism is the term for _ process.
    synthetic
  65. Decomposition reacts take the form _.
    AB => A + B
  66. AB => A + B is the form for _ reactions.
    decomposition
  67. Decomposition reactions ocur when foodstuffs are _.
    broken down for energy
  68. Decomposition reactions occur whenstored forms of chemical energy are _.
    drawn upon during fasting
  69. Reaction that occurs when foodstuffs are broken down is _.
    decomposition
  70. Reaction that occurs when stored forms of chemical energy are drawn upon during fasting is _.
    decomposition
  71. Sum of decomposition reactions are called _.
    catabolism
  72. Catabolism is the sum for _ processes.
    decomposition
  73. Oxidation-reduction is also called _.
    redox reactions
  74. Redox reactions is also known as _.
    oxidation-reduction
  75. In oxidation-reduction one atom donates _.
    one or more electrons to another atom
  76. Reaction in which one atom donates one or more electrons to another atom is _.
    oxidation-reduction
  77. In oxidation-reduction the donor becomes _.
    oxidized
  78. In oxidation-reduction the _ becomes oxidized.
    donor
  79. In oxidation-reduction the recipient becomes _.
    reduced
  80. In oxidation-reduction the _ becomes reduced.
    recipient
  81. In oxidation-reduction,"reduction" means reduction in _.
    positive charge
  82. Free energy is the portion of a system's total energy that _.
    could be used to do work
  83. Portion of a system's total energy that could be used to do work is _.
    free energy
  84. A + B => AB proceeds in the forward direction only if free energy of the product is less than that of the _.
    reactants
  85. A + B => AB proceeds in the forward direction only if the free energy of the produce is _ that that of the reactants.
    less
  86. A + B => AB proceeds in the forward direction only if the _ of the product is less than that of the reactants.
    free energy
  87. Equilibrium is when the relative concentrations of reactants and products have changed such that the reverse reaction goes _.
    as rapidly as the forward reaction
  88. Equilibrium is when the relative concentrations of _ and _ have changed such that the reverse reaction goes as rapidly as the forward reaction.
    • reactants
    • products
  89. When relative concentrations of reactants and products have changed such that the reverse reaction goes as rapidly as the forward reaction, this is _.
    equilibrium
  90. Characteristic ratio of reactants to product at equilibrium is called _.
    equilibrium constant (Keq)
  91. Equilibrium constant (Keq) is the characteristic ratio of _ to _ at equilibrium.
    • reactants
    • products
  92. Solvent is a fluid in which other substances can be _.
    dissolved
  93. Solvent is a fluid in which _ can be dissolved.
    other substances
  94. Fluid in which other substances can be dissolved is _.
    solvent
  95. Solutes are substances that can be dissolved in _.
    solvent
  96. Solutes are substances that can be _ in solvent.
    dissolved
  97. Substances that can be dissolved in solvent are _.
    solutes
  98. Solubility coefficient is the maximum amount of a substance that can be _.
    held in a solution
  99. Solubility coefficient is the _ of a substance that can be held in a solution.
    maximum amount
  100. Maximum amount of a substance that can be held in a solution is _.
    solubility coefficient
  101. Compounds that incorporate ionic bonds separate into their component ions in water solution and are called _.
    electrolytes
  102. Electrolytes are compounds that incorporate ionic bonds and separate into _.
    their ionic compounds in water solution
  103. Electrolytes are compounds that incorporate _ that separate into their component ions in water solution.
    ionic bonds
  104. Each ion in solution is surrounded by a _.
    hydration shell
  105. Molecular weight is the total of all _ of its components expressed in grams.
    atomic weights
  106. Total of all of the atomic weights of its components expressed in grams is _.
    molecular weight
  107. One mole of a compound contains _.
    one Avogadro's number of molecules
  108. Molarity (M) is the number of grams of solute per liter of water divided by the solute's _.
    molecular weight
  109. Molarity (M) is the number of grams of solute per _ divided by the solute's molecular weight.
    liter of water
  110. Molarity (M) is the number of grams of _ per liter of water divided by the solute's molecular weight.
    solute
  111. Number of grams of solute per liter of water divided by the solute's molecular weight is the _.
    molarity (M)
  112. Suspension is formed by particles with dimensions exceeding that of the typical molecule _.
    dispersed in water
  113. Suspension is formed by particles with _ that of the typical molecule dispersed in water.
    dimensions exceeding
  114. Particles with dimensions exceeding that of the typicle molecule dispersed in water forms _.
    suspension
  115. Bond between H and O in water is a _.
    polar covalent bond
  116. Isomers are different forms of molecules with _.
    the same chemical formula
  117. Isomers are _ with the same chemical formula.
    different forms of molecules
  118. Different forms of molecules with the same chemical formula are _.
    isomers
  119. Stereoisomers are variant forms that differ in the orientation of a _.
    key functional group
  120. Stereoisomers are _ that differ in the orientation of a key functional group.
    variant forms
  121. Variant forms that differ in the orientation of a key functional group are _.
    stereoisomers
  122. Disaccharides are from from monosaccharides by _.
    dehydration reaction
  123. Dehydration reaction is the removal of a H+ from one reactant and an OH- from the other allowing the formation of a _.
    molecule of water
  124. Dehydration reaction removes a H+ from one reactant and an _ allowing the formation of a molecule of water.
    OH-
  125. Dehydration reaction removes _ from one reactant and an OH- from the other forming a molecule of water.
    H+
  126. Removal of H+ from one reactant and an OH- from the other forming a molecule of water is _ reaction.
    dehydration
  127. Lipids are major nonpolar, water-insoluble _ molecules in the body.
    organic
  128. Lipids are major nonpolar, _ organic molecules in the body.
    water-insoluble
  129. Lipids are major _, water-insoluble organic molecules in the body.
    nonpolar
  130. Fatty acids are chains of carbons terminating in a _.
    carboxyl group
  131. Fatty acids are _ terminating in a carboxyl group.
    chains of carbons
  132. Triacylglyercols are the major form of _.
    stored lipid in the body.
  133. Major form of stored lipid in the body are _.
    triacylglycerols
  134. Triacylglycerol makes up the majority of _.
    fat in adipose cells
  135. Majority of fat in adipose cells is made up by _.
    triacylglycerols
  136. Triacylglycerols are formed by _ reactions.
    dehydration
  137. Phospholipids are major components of the _.
    plasma membrane
  138. Lecithins is a common group of _.
    phospholipid
  139. Glycolipids are lipids with covalently bound _.
    carbohydrates
  140. Glycolipids are lipids wtih _ carbohydrates.
    covalently bound
  141. Steriods are derivatives of _.
    cholesterol
  142. Prostaglandins are derivatives of _.
    arachidonic acid
  143. Proteins are chains of amino acids joined by _.
    peptide bonds
  144. Proteins are chains of _ joined by peptide bonds.
    amino acids
  145. Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds are _.
    proteins
  146. Formation of a peptide bond is a _ reaction.
    dehydration
  147. Primary sequence is the order of amino acids in the _.
    protein chain
  148. Primary sequence is the order of _ in the protein chain.
    amino acids
  149. Sequence that is the order of amino acids in the protein chain is _.
    primary sequence
  150. Secondary structure is established by _, _, or _ the chain at particular regions of the primary sequence to form motifs.
    • folding
    • coiling
    • pleating
  151. Secondary structure is established by folding, coiling, or pleating the chain at particular regions of the primary sequence to from _.
    motifs
  152. Established by folding, coiling, or pleating the chain at a particular region of the primary sequence is the _.
    secondary structure
  153. Alpha helix is formed by hydrogen bonding between _.
    nearby amino acids in the same chain
  154. Alpha helix is formed by _ between nearby amino acids in the same chain.
    hydrogen bonding
  155. Hydrogen bonding between nearby amino acids in the same chain form the _.
    alpha helix
  156. Pleated sheet motif is the result of repetitive hydrogen bonds between _.
    two parallel chains
  157. Pleated sheet motif is the result of _ between two parallel protein chains.
    repetitive hydrogen bonds
  158. Repetitive hydrogen bonds between two parallel protein chains results in _.
    pleated sheet motifs
  159. Secondary structure undergoes additional folding to form a _.
    complex tertiary structure
  160. Tertiary structure is formed by _.
    additional folding of the secondary structure
  161. Fully structured proteins associating with one another to form functional units called _.
    quaternary structure
  162. Quarternary structure is fully structured proteins that associate with one another to form _.
    functional units
  163. Active site is a pocket formed by an enzyme in which reactants are brought together in the proper orientation for _.
    bond formation
  164. Active site is a pocket formed by an enzyme in which reactants are brought together _ for bond formation.
    in proper orientation
  165. Active site is a pocket formed by an enzyme in which _ are broght together in the proper orientation for bond formation.
    reactants (substrates)
  166. Active site is a pocket formed by _ in which reactants are brought together in the proper orientation for bond formation.
    enzymes
  167. Pocket formed by an enzyme in which the reactants are brought together in the proper orientation for bond formation is _.
    active site
  168. In competitive inhibition the inhibitor molecule occupies the active site of the enzyme, preventing _.
    interaction with the normal substrate
  169. In competitive inhibition the inhibitor molecule _, preventing interaction with the normal substrate.
    occupies the active site of the enzyme
  170. Inhibitor molecule occupies the active site of the enzyme, preventing interation with the normal substrate in _ inhibition.
    competitive
  171. In noncompetitive inhibition the inhibitor binds to another site on the enzyme, changing the tertiary structure of the enzyme and affecting the ability _.
    of the active site to recognize its substrate
  172. In noncompetitive inhibition, the inhibitor binds to anothersite on the enzyme, _ and affecting the ability of the active site to recognize its substrate.
    changing the tertiary structure
  173. In noncompetitive inhibition the inhibitor _, changing the tertiary structure of the enzyme and affecting the ability of the active site to recognize its substrate.
    binds to another site on the enzyme
  174. Inhibitor binds to another site on the enzyme, changing the tertiary structure of the enzyme and affecting the ability of the active site to recognize its substrate in _ inhibition.
    noncompetitive
  175. Enzymes exist in multiple forms with different enzymatic properties called _ or _.
    • isoforms
    • isozymes
  176. Isoforms or isozymes are enzymes that exist in multiple forms with _.
    different enzymatic properties
  177. Isoforms or isozymes are enzymes that _ with different enzymatic properties.
    exist in multiple forms
  178. In catabolism the cell extracts energy from _.
    chemical sources in the environment
  179. Cell extracts energy from chemical sources in the environment is the reaction called _.
    catabolism
  180. Extraction of energy from foodstuff is also termed _.
    cellular respiration
  181. Cellular respiration is _.
    extraction of energy from foodstuff
  182. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main source of energy available to drive _.
    energy-requiring reactions
  183. Main source of energy available to drive energy-requiring reactions is _.
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  184. DNA contains the bases _, _, _, and _.
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • thymine
  185. RNA contains the bases _, _, _, and _.
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • uracil
  186. mRNA carries information for protein sequences from the nucleus to the _.
    protein synthesis machiner in the cytoplasm
  187. mRNA carries information for protein sequences from the _ to the protein synthesis machinery in the cytoplasm.
    nucleus
  188. mRNA carries information for _ from the nucleus to the protein synthesis machinery in the cytoplasm.
    protein sequences
  189. Carries information for protein sequences from the nucleus to the protein synthesis in the cytoplasm is _.
    mRNA
  190. rRNA composes _.
    ribosomes
  191. Ribosomes are composed by _.
    rRNA
  192. tRNA recognizes particular amino acids and adds them to the _.
    growing polypeptide chain
  193. tRNA is responsibe for _ and adding them to the growing polypeptide chain.
    recognizing particular amino acids
  194. Responsible for recognizing particular amino acids and adding them to the growing polypeptide chain is the _.
    tRNA
  195. Working copies of the primary sequence is made in the form of a single strand of complementary mRNA called _.
    primary transcript
  196. Primary transcript is the working copies of the primary sequence made in the form of a single strand of _.
    complementary mRNA
  197. Primary transcript is working copies of _ made in the form of a single strand of mRNA.
    primary sequence
  198. Reading off the code for a protein and using it to synthesize the protein is called _.
    gene expression
  199. Gene expression is reading off teh code for a protein and using it to _.
    synthesize the protein
  200. Gene expression is the _ for a protein and using it to synthesize the protein.
    reading off the code
  201. First step in gene expression is catalyzed by _.
    RNA polymerase
  202. Primary transcript is edited of parts called introns that _.
    will not appear in the final transcript
  203. Primary transcript is edited for _ that will not appear in the final transcript.
    introns
  204. Introns are parts of the _ that will not appear in the final transcript.
    primary transcript
  205. Pieces of RNA that remain after editing are called _.
    exons
  206. Exons are pieces of RNA that _.
    remain after editing
  207. Exons are pieces of _ that remain after editing.
    RNA
  208. Editing the primary transcript is called _.
    posttranscriptional processing
  209. Posttranscriptional processing is the editing of the _.
    primary transcript
  210. Parts of the amino acid are clipped off or two or more polypeptides are attached together to form a functional complex is called _.
    posttranslational processing
  211. Posttranslational processing is parts of the amino acid sequence are clipped off or two or more polypeptides are _.
    attached together to form a functional complex
  212. Posttranslational processing is parts of the _ or two or more polypeptides are attached together to form a functional complex.
    amino acid sequence are clipped off
  213. Signal sequence causes the ribosome translating the mRNA to attach itself to the _.
    endoplasmic reticulum
  214. Signal sequence causes the ribosome translating the _ to attach itself to the endoplasmic reticulum.
    mRNA
  215. Ribosome translating the mRNA attaches itself to the endoplasmic reticulum due to _.
    signal sequence
  216. Transcription of a gene begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promoer site and continues until the polymerase reaches the _.
    terminator site
  217. Transcription of a gene begins when RNA polymerase binds to the _ and continues until the polymerase reaches the terminator site.
    promoter site
  218. Transcription of a gene begins when _ binds to the promoter site and continues until the polymerase reaches the terminator site.
    RNA polymerase
  219. Attachment of polymerase to the promotor can be blocked by _.
    repressors
  220. Repressors _ attachment of polymerase to the promoter.
    block
  221. Repressors are removed by _.
    inducers
  222. Inducers remove _.
    repressors

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