APUSH Ch. 20-22
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What was wrong with secession?
- -would allow Europe to divide and conquer
- -intensify sectional conflict, leading to war
What was the date of Fort Sumter?
April 12, 1861
What was the importance of Fort Sumter?
- -Provoked the North to war
- -Showed the South as the Agressor
- -led to Virginia, Arkansas, Tenessee, and North Carolina joining the confederacy
Who were the border states?
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia
How did Lincoln nsure the border states stayed loyal to the Union?
- -claimed the war was to save the Union
- -claimed martial law in Maryland
- -habeas corpus
- -supervised voting in Border States
Why was Kentucky so important?
Had the Ohio River, whos tributaries (Cumberland and Tennessee) went to the heart of Dixie
Who were the military and political leaders in the South?
- -Robert E. Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
- -Jefferson Davis
Who were the military and political leaders in the North?
- -Ulysses S. Grant and Willaim Sherman
Why did "King Cotton" Fail?
- -masses in Europe opposed aiding slaveholding south
- -surplus of cotton in Britain
- -Union army shipped cotton to Britain
- -cotton in Egypt and India
- -booming war industries in england
- -Britain reliant on American grain (West)
What were the major conflicts with the foreigners?
- -the "Trent" affair
- -the "Alabama" affair
- -Laird rams
- -Napoleonic invasion of Mexico
Who fought the war?
- -volunteers at first
- -nationwide conscription
- -rich could hire a substitute
Where were the anti-draft riots in 1863?
New York City
How did the North raise money for the war?
- Income and excise tax
- Morill tax
- National Banking System (authorized in 1863)
How does the South raise money for the war?
- States righters opposed heavy federal taxation
- runaway inflation
What was the economic impact on the North?
booming economyy with the aid of tariffs
What was the economic impact on the west?
- mechanical reapers made grain king
- Homestead Act encouraged Western migration
What was the economic impact on the South?
blockade devastated the South
What nation emerged during the Civil war and devastated a city in Vermont?
Why was Bull Run (1st Manassas) important? And when did it occur?
- July 1861
- It made the Union realize that the war would not be so easy
- makes the South overconfident
What was the Peninsula Campaign?
- Summer of 1862
- Lead by General McClellan
- Prevents and easy end to the war
- Lads to the draft of the EP
Who fought the battle of Ironclads? (March 1862)
The Monior and the Merrimac
What was the bloodiest battle of the war?
Antietam; September 1862
What was the impact of Antietam?
- Kept away European interferance
- The Vicotry needed for the Emancipation Proclamation
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
- It only freed slaves in the rebellious states
- Made the war a moral crusade
- could be no negotiated peace between North and South
What were the battles in the West?
- Vicksburg (1863)
- Chancellorsville (May 1863) - Stonewall Jackson died during this battle
What was the importance of Gettysburg?
- July 1863
- General George Meade
- North most battle of the Civil War
- South doomed
- Gettysburg address
What was the name for Sherman's march to the sea? And where did he march through?
- "total war" - devaste the South, help Lincoln to get relected
Who ran in the election of 1864?
Lincoln v. General McClellan
What did women do for the war effort?
- Became government workers
- Took jobs abandoned by soldiers
- Became spies or soldiers
What was the Virginia Campaign?
- Ends in the surrender of Lee at Appomotaxx
When was Lincoln assassinated?
April 14, 1865
Who created the US Sanitary Commission?
Dr Elizabeth Blackwwell
Who was Clement L. Vallandigham?
- He was a radical copperhead
- banished to Canada
Who were the "exodusters"?
Freed slaves that left for Kansas from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi
What was the Freedmens Bureau? When was it created?
- a primitive welfare system
- lead by Oliver Howard
- March 3, 1865
What was the freedman's bureau's greatest success?
What was Lincoln's 10% plan?
A state would be readmitted to the Union after 10% of its voters took an oath of allegiance
What was the Wade-Davis bill? And when was it created?
- In 1864
- required 50% of the voters to take a strong oath of allegiance
- demanded safeguards for emancipation
- pocket vetoed by Lincoln
President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan calleed for what?
- special conventions to repeal the secessions
- ratify the 13th Amendment
- more than 10% of voters
What do the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments do?
- 13 - outlaws slavery
- 14 - secured the rights of freed people
- 15 - gives the blacks the right to vote
What was the purpose of the black codes?
- a legal way to enslave the black people
- guranteed black slave power
What were the issues between Congress and the President?
- Veto of the Freedmans Bureau (February 1866)
- Veto of the Civil Rights Act (march 1866)
- Congress passed both over the President's head
Who lead the radical republicans?
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner
What was ex parte Miligan?
- military tribunals could not try civilians during peacetime unless civil courts were not open
Who were the black senate and house delegates>
- Senator Hiram Revels
- Blanche K. Bruce
What was the other name for the Ku Klux Klan?
the Invisible Empire of the South
What were the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871?
brought down the rath of the KKK, but it was too little too late
What law does Johnson "break" that lead to his impeachment?
The Tenure of Office Act by removing Stanton in February 1868
What was Seward's Folly?
Purchase of Alaska
How much was Alaska sold for?
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