Gentics Ch.17: Recombination and Transposition at the Molecular Level

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Gentics Ch.17: Recombination and Transposition at the Molecular Level
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2011-12-06 13:37:40
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Genetics Ch.17: Recombination and Transposition at the Molecular Level
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  1. antibody
    protiens produced by the B-cells of the immune system that recognize foreign substances (namely, viruses, bacteria, and so forth) and target them for destruction
  2. antigen
    foreign substances that are recognized by antibodies
  3. gene conversion
    the phenomenon in which one allele is converted to another allele due to genetic recombination and DNA repair
  4. heteroduplex
    a double-stranded region of DNA that contains one or more base mismatches
  5. homologous recombination
    recombination between DNA segments that are homologous to each other
  6. hybrid dysgenesis
    a syndrome involving defective Drosophila offspring, due to the phenomenon that P elements can transpose freely.
  7. insertion sequence
    the simplest transposable elements. They are commonly found in bacteria.
  8. integrase
    an enzyme that functions in the integration of viral DNA or retroelements into the host chromosome
  9. inverted repeat
    DNA sequences found in transposable elements that are identical (or very similar) but run in the opposite directions
  10. locus
    the physical location of a gene within a chromosome
  11. long terminal repeat sequence
    sequences containing many short segments that are tanemly repeated. They are found in retroviruses and viral-like retroelements
  12. prophage
    the first phase of M phase. The chromosomes have already replicated and begin to condense.
  13. resolution
    the last stage of homologous recombination, in which the entangle DNA, strands become resolved into two separate structures.
  14. retroelement
    a type of transposable element that moves via an RNA intermidiate
  15. reverse transcriptase
    an enzyme that uses an RNA template to make a complementary strand of DNA.
  16. selfish DNA theory
    the idea that transposable elements exsist because they possess characteristics that allow them to multiply within the host cell DNA and inhabit the host without offering any selective advantage
  17. sister chromatid exchange
    the phenomenon in which crossing over occurs between sister chromatids, therby exchanging identical genetic material
  18. transposable element
    a small genetic element that can move to multiple locations within the host's chromosomal DNA
  19. transposase
    the enzyme that catalyzes the transposition of trasposable elements
  20. transposition
    the phenomenon of transposon movement
  21. transposon tagging
    a technique for cloning genes in which a transposon inserts into a gene and inactivates it. The transposon-tagged gene is then cloned using a complementary transposon as a probe to identify the gene
  22. Which statement regarding recombination is false?
    A) Recombination creates new combinations of alleles on a chromosome.
    B) Sister chromatid exchange is a form of recombination.
    C) Gene conversion may occur during recombination.
    D) Recombination commonly occurs between homologous sequences.
    B) Sister chromatid exchange is a form of recombination.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Crossing over occurs in both mitosis and meisosis.
    a) True
    b) False
    a) True
  24. Harlequin chromosomes:
    a) Have been used to demonstrate sister chromatid exchange.
    b) Have sister chromatids that stain differently.
    c) Can only exist in prophase or metaphase.
    d) All of the above.
    e) None of the above.
    d) All of the above.
  25. Which of these describes a Holliday junction?
    A) A three stranded DNA structure where single stranded DNA has invaded a double
    B) An interaction of two strands of DNA from homologous chromosomes.
    C) A strand of DNA containing genetic material from two different chromosomes.
    D) A section of DNA where base pairing is not exact.
    helix.
    B) An interaction of two strands of DNA from homologous chromosomes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. After isomerization and resolution, the resulting chromosomes are:
    A) Unchanged from the original chromosome.
    B) Recombinant chromosomes without a heteroduplex region.
    C) Nonrecombinant chromosomes with a heteroduplex region.
    D) Harlequin chromosomes.
    E) Recombinant chromosomes with a heteroduplex region.
    E) Recombinant chromosomes with a heteroduplex region.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Considering the steps listed below, identify the correct sequence of events
    proposed by the double-strand break model of recombination.
    I. Strand
    invasion and D loop formation.
    II. DNA gap repair synthesis.
    III.
    Generation of single stranded DNA segments.
    IV. Resolution.
    A) III, II, I, IV
    B) I, III, II, IV
    C) III, I, II, IV
    D) IV, III, I, III
    C) III, I, II, IV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The existence of single Holliday junctions is strong support for the Holliday
    model of recombination.
    a) True
    b) False
    b) False
  29. What is gene conversion?
    a) A process by which a gene is rendered nonfunctional.
    b) A process that changes an allele to the allele existing on the homologous
    chromosome.
    c) A process that restores the wild type function of a gene.
    d) A process that creates a new allele of a gene.
    e) None of these.
    • b) A process that changes an allele to the allele existing on the homologous
    • chromosome.

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