CGS2100 Test 2 Ch 12

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CGS2100 Test 2 Ch 12
2011-12-06 00:17:21
CGS2100 Test Chapter 12

FSU CGS2100 Test 2 Chapter 12
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  1. 802.11 standard
    A wireless standard established in 1997 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; also known as WiFi (short for Wireless Fidelity), it enables wireless network devices to work seamlessly with other networks and devices.
  2. access card reader
    A device that reads information from a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card–like access card (such as a student ID card); card readers are easily programmed by adding authorized ID card numbers, Social Security numbers, and so on.
  3. access method
    A program or hardware mechanism that controls which computer is allowed to use the transmission media in a network at a certain time.
  4. active topology
    A network topology in which each node on the network is responsible for retransmitting the token, or the data, to other nodes.
  5. application server
    A server that acts as a repository for application software.
  6. authentication
    The process of identifying a computer user, based on a login or username and password. The computer system determines whether the computer user is authorized and what level of access is to be granted on the network.
  7. authentication server
    A server that keeps track of who is logging on to the network and which services on the network are available to each user.
  8. bandwidth (data transfer rate)
    The maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network; usually measured in megabits per second (Mbps). See also data transfer rate.
  9. bastion host
    A heavily secured server located on a special perimeter network between a company’s secure internal network and its firewall.
  10. biometric authentication device
    A device that uses some unique characteristic of human biology to identify authorized users.
  11. bridge
    A network device that is used to send data between two different local area networks (LANs) or two segments of the same LAN.
  12. brute force attack
    An attack delivered by specialized hacking software that tries many combinations of letters, numbers, and pieces of a user ID in an attempt to discover a user password.
  13. bus (linear bus) topology
    A system of networking connections in which all devices are connected to a central cable called the bus (or backbone).
  14. centralized
    A type of network design in which users are not responsible for creating their own data backups or providing security for their computers; instead, those tasks are handled by a centralized server, software, and a system administrator.
  15. client
    A computer that requests information from a server in a client/server network (such as your computer when you are connected to the Internet).
  16. client/server network (server-based network)
    A type of network that uses servers to deliver services to computers that are requesting them (clients).
  17. coaxial cable
    A single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic insulation and sheathing; used mainly in cable television and cable Internet service.
  18. communications server
    A server that handles all communications between the network and other networks, including managing Internet connectivity.
  19. CSMA/CD
    A method of data collision detection in which a node connected to the network listens (that is, has carrier sense) to determine that no other nodes are currently transmitting data signals; short for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.
  20. data collision
    When two computers send data at the same time and the sets of data collide somewhere in the media.
  21. data transfer rate (bandwidth)
    The maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network; usually measured in megabits per second (Mbps).
  22. database server
    A server that provides client computers with access to information stored in a database.
  23. decentralized
    A type of network in which users are responsible for creating their own data backups and for providing security for their computers.
  24. dedicated server
    A server used to fulfill one specific function (such as handling e-mail).
  25. device driver
    Software that facilitates the communication between a device and the operating system.
  26. e-mail server
    A server that processes and delivers incoming and outgoing e-mail.
  27. extranet
    The portion of a company’s intranet that is used to share business information with business partners such as vendors, suppliers, and customers.
  28. fiber-optic cable
    A cable that transmits data at close to the speed of light along glass or plastic fibers.
  29. file server
    A computer deployed to provide remote storage space or to act as a repository for files that users can access.
  30. frame
    A container designed to hold multiple data packets.
  31. hybrid topology
    A topology comprised of several topologies and combined into one network.
  32. intranet
    A private corporate network that is used exclusively by company employees to facilitate information sharing, database access, group scheduling, videoconferencing, and other employee and customer collaborations.
  33. jam signal
    A special signal sent to all network nodes, alerting them that a data collision has occurred.
  34. local area network (LAN)
    A network in which the nodes are located within a small geographic area.
  35. media access control (MAC) address
    A physical address, similar to a serial number on an appliance, that is assigned to each network adapter; it is made up of six 2-digit characters such as 01:40:87:44:79:A5.
  36. metropolitan area network (MAN)
    A wide area network (WAN) that links users in a specific geographic area (such as within a city or county).
  37. network
    A group of two or more computers (or nodes) that are configured to share information and resources such as printers, files, and databases.
  38. network adapter
    A device that enables the computer (or peripheral) to communicate with the network using a common data communication language, or protocol.
  39. network administrator
    Someone who has training in computer and peripheral maintenance and repair, network design, and the installation of network software; installs new equipment, configures computers for users, repairs equipment, and assigns network access to users.
  40. network navigation device
    A device on a network such as a router, hub, and switch that moves data signals around the network.
  41. network operating system (NOS)
    Software that handles requests for information, Internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes.
  42. network topology
    The layout and structure of the network.
  43. packet (data packet)
    A small segment of data that is bundled for sending over transmission media. Each packet contains the address of the computer or peripheral device to which it is being sent.
  44. packet screening
    A process that involves examining incoming data packets to ensure they originated from, or are authorized by, valid users on the internal network.
  45. passive topology
    When data merely travels the entire length of the communications medium and is received by all network devices.
  46. personal area network (PAN)
    A network used to connect wireless devices (such as Bluetooth-enabled devices) in close proximity to each other.
  47. possessed object
    Any object that a user carries to identify him- or herself and that grants the user access to a computer system or computer facility.
  48. print queue
    A software holding area for printing jobs.
  49. print server
    A server that manages all client-requested printing jobs for all printers on the network.
  50. protocol
    (1) A set of rules for exchanging data and communication. (2) The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) indicating the set of rules used to retrieve the specified document. The protocol is generally followed by a colon; two forward slashes; www (indicating World Wide Web); and then the domain name.
  51. proxy server
    Acts as a go-between for computers on the internal network and the external network (the Internet).
  52. radio frequency identification tag (RFID tag)
    A tag that looks like a sticker or label, is attached to a batch of merchandise, and contains a microchip that holds a unique sequence of numbers used to identify the product to which it is attached.
  53. ring (loop) topology
    A network configuration in which the computers and peripherals are laid out in a configuration resembling a circle. Data flows around the circle from device to device in one direction only.
  54. router
    A device that routes packets of data between two or more networks.
  55. scalability
    The ability to easily add more users to a network without affecting the performance of the other network nodes (computers or peripherals).
  56. server
    A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network.
  57. shielded twisted pair (STP) cable
    Twisted pair cable that contains a layer of foil shielding to reduce interference.
  58. star topology
    An active topology (meaning that data is retransmitted) in which the nodes connect to a central communications device called a switch. The switch receives a signal from the sending node and retransmits it to the node that should receive it.
  59. switch
    A device for transmitting data on a network. A switch makes decisions, based on the media access control (MAC) address of the data, as to where the data is to be sent.
  60. terminator
    A device that absorbs a signal so that it is not reflected back onto parts of the network that have already received it.
  61. token
    A special data packet that allows Data to flows from device to device in one direction only.
  62. token method
    The access method that ring networks use to avoid data collisions.
  63. transmission media
    The radio waves or cable that transport data on a network.
  64. twisted pair cable
    Cables made of copper wires that are twisted around each other and are surrounded by a plastic jacket (such as traditional home phone wire).
  65. unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable
    The most popular transmission media option for Ethernet networks. UTP cable is composed of four pairs of wires that are twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference.
  66. virtual private network (VPN)
    A network that uses public communication pathways (usually the Internet) to provide branch offices or employees who are not at the office with secure access to the company network. VPNs maintain privacy by using secure data communication protocols.
  67. Web server
    A computer running a specialized operating system that enables it to host Web pages (and other information) and provide requested Web pages to clients.
  68. wide area network (WAN)
    A network made up of local area networks (LANs) connected over long distances.
  69. wireless access point (WAP)
    A device similar to a switch in an Ethernet network. It takes the place of a wireless network adapter and helps relay data between network nodes.
  70. wireless media
    Communications media that do not use cables but instead rely on radio waves to communicate.
  71. wireless network interface card (wireless NIC)
    A card installed in a system that connects with wireless access points on the network.