FSCN.ch.14.Water.major.minerals

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FSCN.ch.14.Water.major.minerals
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2011-12-06 00:58:06
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FSCN 14 Water major minerals
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FSCN.ch.14.Water.major.minerals
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  1. Water (intracellular/extracellular fluid).

    Which one does the body contain more of?

    What are two parts of extra. fluid?
    Intra: 67% of body's water

    Extra: interstitial (btwn cells), intrastitial (blood & lymph)
  2. What does water follow in your body?

    Moves from ____ to _____ concentration.

    What is Osmosis?
    Water follows electrolytes.

    low --> high concentration.

    • Osmosis:
    • -passive diffusion of water across membranes.
  3. What is the purpose of the SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP?
    Pumps electrolytes.

    • Purpose: ***Swap IONs across membranes.
    • -Na out, K in.
  4. Water.

    Functions

    Deficiency

    Toxicity

    *80% fluid intake; 20% food intake
    • Functions:
    • -Transport of nutrients & O2.
    • -Misc. body fluids (saliva, bile, etc.)
    • -Lubrication
    • -Required by some enzyme reactions
    • -Temperature regulation (sweating; water evaporates, water cools us)

    • Deficiency
    • -Dehydration
    • -Symptoms: muscle cramps, decreased blood pressure, concentrated (yellow) urine, headaches, etc.
    • -Body’s response:
    • -Anti-diuretic hormone
    • -Renin-angiotensin & aldosterone system

    • Toxicity:
    • Hyponatremia (too much water; low serum Na).
  5. What is:

    Angiotensin 2

    Hypertension (risk factors)?

    DASH diet
    • Angiotensin 2:
    • -Constricts blood vessels which increase blood pressure.

    -Unknown Cause

    • Risk Factors:
    • -Age
    • -Race
    • –African Americans most at risk
    • -Obesity
    • -Diabetes
    • -Salt intake

    • ***DASH diet: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension: MOST EFFECTIVE to lower blood pressure
    • -Reduce alcohol.
  6. Sodium.

    Functions

    Deficiency
    • Functions:
    • -Absorption of glucose & some AAs
    • -Muscle contraction
    • -Nerve impulses
    • -Water balance
    • -Plays a big role in edema/swelling since it is major electrolyte in extracellular fluid.

    • Deficiency:
    • -Very rare
    • -Hyponatremia
    • ***Excess Na is a MAJOR health problem
    • -Increases risk for heart disease, hypertension, stroke & kidney stones
    • -Choose foods prepared at home or fresh foods rather than processed or packaged foods.
  7. Potassium.

    Function.

    Deficiency

    Food sources
    • Function
    • -Very similar to SODIUM

    • Deficiency
    • -Hypokalemia (NOT COMMON)

    • -Symptoms:
    • weakness, fatigue, constipation, irregular heartbeat, etc.
    • -RARE:
    • causes heart attacks.
  8. Chloride.

    Function

    Deficiency
    • Function
    • -Fluid volume & balance, acid balance, nerve impulses, etc.

    • Deficiency
    • -Very RARE
  9. Calcium.

    ***We only absorb about 30% of calcium; the remaining gets lost in sweat, feces, urine.

    Function.

    Cortisol Bone

    Trebecular Bone
    • Function
    • -MAJOR FUNCTION: bone development & maintenance.
    • -Blood clotting, muscle contraction, enzyme activity, and nerve impulses

    • Cortisol Bone: 75% of skeletal mass
    • (mostly OUTSIDE of bone, dense material).

    Trebeculur Bone: Where most bone remodeling occurs (INSIDE of bone).
  10. What are the cells involved in bone remodeling?
    Osteoblasts: ADD minerals (e.g. add calcium to bones).

    Osteoclasts: REMOVE or dissolves minerals (bone reabsorption).
  11. What is:

    Osteopenia

    Osteoporosis

    Kyphosis

    Prevention & treatment of Osteoporosis?
    Osteopenia: normal - low bone mass

    Osteoporosis: low - very low bone mass

    Kyphosis: DOWAGER'S HUMP (hunchback of notre dame)

    • Prevention & Treatment:
    • -Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus (MOST imp. to bones)
    • -Active lifestyle
    • -Drug therapy

    *Pressure is involved w/ bones
  12. Phosphorus.

    Function

    Deficiency

    Food sources
    • Function:
    • -Major component of bone & teeth
    • *Critical to the function of EVERY body cell
    • -ATP, DNA, RNA, cell signaling

    • Deficiency:
    • RARE, but a chronic deficiency can effect bone
    • loss, growth & tooth development

    • Food source:
    • -Dairy & meat, etc.
  13. Magnesium.

    Function

    Deficiency

    Food sources
    • Function
    • -Biochemical & physiological processes

    • Deficiency
    • -Irregular heartbeat, weakness, muscle spasms
    • *INCREASE RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS

    • Food sources:
    • *HARDWATER
  14. Sulfur.

    Functions

    ***NO DEFICIENCY/TOXICITY
    • Function
    • -Vitamins & AAs
    • -Stabilize the structure of proteins
    • -Participates in acid-base balance

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