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Water (intracellular/extracellular fluid).
Which one does the body contain more of?
What are two parts of extra. fluid?
Intra: 67% of body's water
Extra: interstitial (btwn cells), intrastitial (blood & lymph)
What does water follow in your body?
Moves from ____ to _____ concentration.
What is Osmosis?
Water follows electrolytes.
low --> high concentration.
- -passive diffusion of water across membranes.
What is the purpose of the SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP?
- Purpose: ***Swap IONs across membranes.
- -Na out, K in.
*80% fluid intake; 20% food intake
- -Transport of nutrients & O2.
- -Misc. body fluids (saliva, bile, etc.)
- -Required by some enzyme reactions
- -Temperature regulation (sweating; water evaporates, water cools us)
- -Symptoms: muscle cramps, decreased blood pressure, concentrated (yellow) urine, headaches, etc.
- -Body’s response:
- -Anti-diuretic hormone
- -Renin-angiotensin & aldosterone system
- Hyponatremia (too much water; low serum Na).
Hypertension (risk factors)?
- Angiotensin 2:
- -Constricts blood vessels which increase blood pressure.
- Risk Factors:
- –African Americans most at risk
- -Salt intake
- ***DASH diet: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension: MOST EFFECTIVE to lower blood pressure
- -Reduce alcohol.
- -Absorption of glucose & some AAs
- -Muscle contraction
- -Nerve impulses
- -Water balance
- -Plays a big role in edema/swelling since it is major electrolyte in extracellular fluid.
- -Very rare
- ***Excess Na is a MAJOR health problem
- -Increases risk for heart disease, hypertension, stroke & kidney stones
- -Choose foods prepared at home or fresh foods rather than processed or packaged foods.
- -Very similar to SODIUM
- -Hypokalemia (NOT COMMON)
- weakness, fatigue, constipation, irregular heartbeat, etc.
- causes heart attacks.
- -Fluid volume & balance, acid balance, nerve impulses, etc.
***We only absorb about 30% of calcium; the remaining gets lost in sweat, feces, urine.
- -MAJOR FUNCTION: bone development & maintenance.
- -Blood clotting, muscle contraction, enzyme activity, and nerve impulses
- Cortisol Bone: 75% of skeletal mass
- (mostly OUTSIDE of bone, dense material).
Trebeculur Bone: Where most bone remodeling occurs (INSIDE of bone).
What are the cells involved in bone remodeling?
Osteoblasts: ADD minerals (e.g. add calcium to bones).
Osteoclasts: REMOVE or dissolves minerals (bone reabsorption).
Prevention & treatment of Osteoporosis?
Osteopenia: normal - low bone mass
Osteoporosis: low - very low bone mass
Kyphosis: DOWAGER'S HUMP (hunchback of notre dame)
- Prevention & Treatment:
- -Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus (MOST imp. to bones)
- -Active lifestyle
- -Drug therapy
*Pressure is involved w/ bones
- -Major component of bone & teeth
- *Critical to the function of EVERY body cell
- -ATP, DNA, RNA, cell signaling
- RARE, but a chronic deficiency can effect bone
- loss, growth & tooth development
- Food source:
- -Dairy & meat, etc.
- -Biochemical & physiological processes
- -Irregular heartbeat, weakness, muscle spasms
- *INCREASE RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS
- -Vitamins & AAs
- -Stabilize the structure of proteins
- -Participates in acid-base balance