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What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
- (1793) A group of farmers in western Penn. refused to pay the excise tax on whiskey. They went as far as injuring tax collectors in their area.
- Washington and Hamilton saw The Whiskey Rebellion as a threat to the authority of the Federal governement. Washington sent 13,000 state militia troops to crush the rebels.
The French Revolution
- In 1789, the French people rebelled against their king - the French rebels dreamed of building a country based on the "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity (brotherhood)"
- Americans were split over the French Revolution - some saw the FR as a great crusade for democracy (Democratic-Republicans, or simply "Republicans" - led by T. Jefferson).
- Others felt threatened by the French revolt (Federalists led by Hamilton) - mostly because they were wealthy and many of the 20,000 people killed in Frnace were wealthy.
Neutrality / Isolationism policy
- President Washington creates America's first Foreign Policy
- Knowing that America, as a new nation, was weak - Washington established a policy of NEUTRALITY. He would side with either Britain or France during their disputes.
- NEUTRALITY is a policy of not choosing sides in a war or dispute between other countries.
- Washington's policy of avoiding alliances with other countries became known as ISOLATIONISM
- ISOLATIONISM is the policy of avoiding polictical or miliatry agrements with other countries
What was the Federalist Party?
- Federalist believed that the country should be ruled by "the best people" - educated, wealthy and public-spirited. They felt that most people were basically selfish and greedy - and not capable of making wise decisions for the good of the nation.
- Federalists favored a strong national government . They felt that the rights of the states were not as important as national power and authority.
- Alexander Hamilton (US Treasury Secretary under G. Washington) was the most influential Federalist. John Adams and John Jay as helped form this party
- This party favored industry, bankers, and merchants
Democratic-Republican Party (AKA Republican Party)
- Led by Thomas Jefferson
- Believed that the best government was one that governed the least.
- Favored strong state governments
- They insisted on a strict interpretation of the Constitution
- Favored farmers and tradesmen
The Alien and Sedition Acts
4 U.S. laws signed by John Adams that limited immigration and naturalization - ALIEN ACTS - as well as punishing those who encouraged rebellion against the government - the SEDITION ACTS (especially punished newspaper editors for publishing negative material about gov. officials)
- Resolutions passed by VIrginia and Kentucky stating they would ignore the Federal Alien and Sedition Acts. The resolutions were based on the States' Rights theory of the Constitution.
- Supporters of States' Rights believe that states were not obligated to honor federal laws that they believed violated the Constitution.
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 electoral votes for President, forcing the House to break the tie, which led to several ballots - but finally voting 10 to 4 in favor of Jefferson.
A treaty brokered by Chief Justice John Jay between the US and Britain, resulting in the British leaving the Ohio Valley. This caused negative relations between the U.S. and France
- Pres Adams sent 3 American envoys to France to end the French Naval attacks on American ships. The French Foreign Minister refused to meet with them, instead he sent three secret agents (X,Y, and Z).
- X,Y, and Z said there would be no peace talks unless the Americans paid a large sum of money as a tribute to the Foreign minister (basically a bribe)
The British Navy was kidnapping American sailors claiming that they were British deserters leading to tensions between the US and Britain prior to the War of 1812
The Embargo Act (1807)
- An unpopular law passed by Jefferson).
- No foreign ships could enter US ports and no American ships could leave, except to trade at other US ports.
- He hoped that stopping trade would prove to be so painful for the British and French that they wuld agree to leave American ships alone.
- allowing no foreign trade with the US caused American business losses
- It was repealed 2 years later
War of 1812
- Two year war between the US and Britain in North America
- Resulted in the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war and gave both countries land
Monroe Doctorine (1823)
A message by President Monroe stating that European powers should not continue colonizing or interfering in North or South America and added that it threatened peace
- A philosophy that the Federal government should take an active role in building the national economy.
- Including high tariffs, spending on public projects (ie roads and canals) and creating/maintaining a National Bank
An economic system based on private ownership of farms & businesses
McCullough v. Maryland (1819)
- The Supreme Court confirmed Congress's power to create a national bank that was free from state interference.
- The Supreme Court's Cheif Justice at the time was John Marshall (he was appointed by John Adams, a Federalist)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
In this case, the Court further reduced or limited state powers when it struck down a monopoly that New York state had granted to a steamboat company operating between NY and NJ
The unofficial practice of President Andrew Jackson of relying on trusted friends and political supporters for advice instead of his cabinet. They oftern met in the White House kitchen
The Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs
- South Carolina argued that the 1828 and 1832 federal tariffs were null and void and threatened to secede.
- The constitional issue of nullification had been raised before with the VA/KY resolutions
- Jackson argued for the use of the federeal army to collect tariffs
Bank of the United States
- A bank that was partly owned by the federal government with a monopoly of federal deposits.
- Andrew Jackson felt that the Bank of the U.S. stood in the way of hopeful capitialist and only existed to make the rich even richer.
- He put the bank out of business by ordering the removal of all federal funds from the Bank of the U.S. and had them placed in state banks
- Phrase meaning "obvious fate"
- Coined in 1845 by a newspaper writer (John O'Sullivan), used by Americans to justify territorial expansion
- A $15 million land deal brokered in 1803 by Jefferson thru James Monroe. Originally sent to France to purchase New Orleans for $7.5 million - Monroe ended up buying the whole territory
- The amount of land purchase doubled the size of the United States - from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mtns.
- It secured free navigation of the Mississippi River
- 1836 - Texans defended a mission in San Antonio called the Alamo against the Mexican Army in a siege that lasted 12 days.
- Every American soldier was killed in this battle - those not kllled in battle were executed on the spot
- There were approx 180 Texans vs 4,000 Mexican troops
- Texans captured General Santa Anna and in exchange for his freedom, Mexico removed all of its troops from Texas.
- This allowed them to create the Lone Star Republic, an independent country from 1836-1845
- A wagon trail cutting thru the Rockies into Oregon country.
- It was traveled by thousands of Americans in the 1840's
- A conflict between Mexico and the U.S. over western territories. When Congress voted to annex Texas, relations between the U.S. and Mexico worsened.
- The conflict lasted 2 years
- Resulted in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo: Mexico agreed to give up Texas and a vast region known as the Mexican Cession (included CA, NV, NM, UT, AZ, and parts of WY & CO)
Lewis & Clark Expedition
- A two year expedition (from 1804-06) led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
- Commissioned by Jefferson to explore the land between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean, as well as search for the Northwest Passage (a water route across North America)
- After James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848, thousands of goldseekers from around the world began to travel to CA in 1849.
- 2/3 of the "49ers" were Americans