Patho Chapter 4
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Patho Chapter 4
Fluids and electrolytes
The total water loss per day in the adult is :
Of 60% of the body weight made up of water about two thirds is ?
Sodium is responsible for:
ECF osmotic balance
A milliequivablent is a unit of :
Which statement is true?
The positive and negative charges in blood plasma much be equal to each other
Aldosterone controls ECF volume by:
sodium reabsorption and water reabsorption
The release of ADH is not stimulated by:
An acid is :
a substance/ chemical that donates a hydrogen ion or a proton to the solution
include phosporic acid, contribute many H ions to teh solution, and are eliminated by the renal tubules
The blood pH is maintained near 7.4 by buffering systems. The sequence from the fastest acting to the slowest acting system is ?
blood, buffers, lungs, and kidneys
The pH of saliva is about 7 and the pH of the gastric juice is 2. How many times more concentrated is the hysdrogen ion in gasric juice than in saliva?
Which would not shift the blood pH toward alkalosis?
bicarbonate ion secretion into the urine
As HCO3 shifts from the red blood cell to the blood plasma, it is expected that the plasma?
Cl- shifts into the red blood cells
How are body fluid distributed?
among intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF)
Total Body Weight (TBW):
is the sum of all fluids which varies with age and body fat
How does water move in relation to plasma?
Water moves between the plasma and interstitial fluid by osmosis (pulling water) and hydrostatic pressure (pushing water) which occurs across capillary membranes
What is edema?
a problem with fluid distribution that results in accumulation of fluid within the intersititial spaces
the pathophysiologiv process that leads to edema is related to an increase in forces in forces favoring fluid filtration from the capillaries or lympathic channels into tissues
What causes Edema?
is caused by arterial dilation, venous or lymphatic obstruction, increased vascular volume, or increased capillary permeability
Sodium, Water and Cl-:
Sodium and water are intimately related and chloride levels are generally proprtional to change in sodium levels
Water balance is regulated by:
Thirst mechanism and ADH which is secreted in response to by an increase in plasma osmolaity or a decrease in circulating blood volume.
Sodium is regulated by:
Aldosterone, which increases reabsorption of sodium from teh urine into the blood by the distal tubule of the kidney
is involved in decreasing tubular reabsorption and promoting urinary excretion of sodium
Alterations in water balance is classified by:
isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic
levels above 17 ml/EQ which is caused by an increase of sodium or loss of water
develop when teh osmolality of the ECF is elevated aboce normal , usually because of an increased concentration of ECF sodium ofr a deficit of ECF of water
occurs when changes in TBW are accompanied by proportional changes in electrolytes
is the predominant ICF ion, it regulates ICF osmolaltiy, maintains resting membrane potential and is required for deposition of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle cells.
regulated by the kidney, by aldosterone and insulin secretion, and by changes in pH.
Hypokalemia- potassium serum levels can remain the same but total loss of potassium in body
1. bone structure
2. blood clotting
3. hormone secretion and function of cell receptors
4. membrane stability
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate:
by the parathyroid, Vitamin D, and calcitonin
can be caused by hyperparathyroidism, bone metastases, sarcoidosis, and excess Vitamin D
maintain membrane integrity and the speed of enzymatic reactions and must be concentrated within a narrow range if the body is to function
The renal and respiratory system work together to maintain acid-base balance
can absorb excessive acid or base but not alter overally pH.
Buffers exist as acid base pairs; principle plasma buffers are carbonic acid-bicarbonate, protein (hemoglobin) and phosphate
is caused by an increase in non-carbonic acids or loss of bicarbonate from extracellular fluid
occurs with an increase in bicabonate usually caused by loss of metabolic acids from conditions such as vomiting or GI suction or from excessive bicarbonate intake
occurs with decreasein alveolar ventilation, which in turn cause hypercapnia (increase in CO2) and increases in carboninc acid concentration.
occurs with alveolar hyperventilation and excessive reduction in carbonic dioxide, or hypocapnia with decrease in carbonic acid