Patho Chapter 4

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  1. The total water loss per day in the adult is :
    2.8 liters
  2. Of 60% of the body weight made up of water about two thirds is ?
    intracellular fluid
  3. Sodium is responsible for:
    ECF osmotic balance
  4. A milliequivablent is a unit of :
    chemical activity
  5. Which statement is true?
    The positive and negative charges in blood plasma much be equal to each other
  6. Aldosterone controls ECF volume by:
    sodium reabsorption and water reabsorption
  7. The release of ADH is not stimulated by:
  8. An acid is :
    a substance/ chemical that donates a hydrogen ion or a proton to the solution
  9. Strong acids:
    include phosporic acid, contribute many H ions to teh solution, and are eliminated by the renal tubules
  10. The blood pH is maintained near 7.4 by buffering systems. The sequence from the fastest acting to the slowest acting system is ?
    blood, buffers, lungs, and kidneys
  11. The pH of saliva is about 7 and the pH of the gastric juice is 2. How many times more concentrated is the hysdrogen ion in gasric juice than in saliva?
  12. Which would not shift the blood pH toward alkalosis?
    bicarbonate ion secretion into the urine
  13. As HCO3 shifts from the red blood cell to the blood plasma, it is expected that the plasma?
    Cl- shifts into the red blood cells
  14. How are body fluid distributed?
    among intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF)
  15. Total Body Weight (TBW):
    is the sum of all fluids which varies with age and body fat
  16. How does water move in relation to plasma?
    Water moves between the plasma and interstitial fluid by osmosis (pulling water) and hydrostatic pressure (pushing water) which occurs across capillary membranes
  17. What is edema?
    • a problem with fluid distribution that results in accumulation of fluid within the intersititial spaces
    • the pathophysiologiv process that leads to edema is related to an increase in forces in forces favoring fluid filtration from the capillaries or lympathic channels into tissues
  18. What causes Edema?
    is caused by arterial dilation, venous or lymphatic obstruction, increased vascular volume, or increased capillary permeability
  19. Sodium, Water and Cl-:
    Sodium and water are intimately related and chloride levels are generally proprtional to change in sodium levels
  20. Water balance is regulated by:
    Thirst mechanism and ADH which is secreted in response to by an increase in plasma osmolaity or a decrease in circulating blood volume.
  21. Sodium is regulated by:
    Aldosterone, which increases reabsorption of sodium from teh urine into the blood by the distal tubule of the kidney
  22. Anti-natriuretic hormone:
    is involved in decreasing tubular reabsorption and promoting urinary excretion of sodium
  23. Alterations in water balance is classified by:
    isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic
  24. Hypernatremia:
    levels above 17 ml/EQ which is caused by an increase of sodium or loss of water
  25. Hypertonic :
    develop when teh osmolality of the ECF is elevated aboce normal , usually because of an increased concentration of ECF sodium ofr a deficit of ECF of water
  26. Isotonic:
    occurs when changes in TBW are accompanied by proportional changes in electrolytes
  27. Potassium:
    • is the predominant ICF ion, it regulates ICF osmolaltiy, maintains resting membrane potential and is required for deposition of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle cells.
    • regulated by the kidney, by aldosterone and insulin secretion, and by changes in pH.
    • Hypokalemia- potassium serum levels can remain the same but total loss of potassium in body
  28. Calcium:
    • 1. bone structure
    • 2. blood clotting
    • 3. hormone secretion and function of cell receptors
    • 4. membrane stability
  29. Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate:
    by the parathyroid, Vitamin D, and calcitonin
  30. Hypercalcemia:
    can be caused by hyperparathyroidism, bone metastases, sarcoidosis, and excess Vitamin D
  31. Hydrogen ions:
    maintain membrane integrity and the speed of enzymatic reactions and must be concentrated within a narrow range if the body is to function
  32. Buffers:
    • The renal and respiratory system work together to maintain acid-base balance
    • can absorb excessive acid or base but not alter overally pH.
    • Buffers exist as acid base pairs; principle plasma buffers are carbonic acid-bicarbonate, protein (hemoglobin) and phosphate
  33. Metabolic acidosis:
    is caused by an increase in non-carbonic acids or loss of bicarbonate from extracellular fluid
  34. Metabolic Alkalosis:
    occurs with an increase in bicabonate usually caused by loss of metabolic acids from conditions such as vomiting or GI suction or from excessive bicarbonate intake
  35. Respiratory acidosis:
    occurs with decreasein alveolar ventilation, which in turn cause hypercapnia (increase in CO2) and increases in carboninc acid concentration.
  36. Respiratory Alkalosis:
    occurs with alveolar hyperventilation and excessive reduction in carbonic dioxide, or hypocapnia with decrease in carbonic acid
Card Set
Patho Chapter 4
Fluids and electrolytes
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