Card Set Information
An increase in percentage of water vapor in the air would cause the partial pressure of oxygen to:
Which of the muscles are important in forced respiration?
External intercostals and sternocleidomastoid
The _____ is lined with mucosa to remove particulates from the respiratory tract
Conducting zone and respiratory zone
Restrictive disorders reduce:
Compliance, distensibility, and vital capacity
Compliance is the tendency of the lungs to _____ and is necessary for ______
Surfactant produced by _____ prevents the alveoli from collapsing during expiration
Type II alveolar cells
The _____ attaches to the vocal folds and swivels to regulate their tension
The total lung volume includes the vital capacity and _____.
Hemoglobin saturation increases as a result of which of the following?
An increase in pCO2 will result in _____ dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin
The area of most abundant true goblet cells is:
Which of the following inhibits stomach secretion and motility while simultaneously stimulating bile release, pancreatic enzyme release, and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi?
Amino acids are absorbed into mucosal cells principally by:
Negative feedback on stomach secretin and motility as acid chime reaches the duodenum results from the secretion into the bloodstream of:
The lining of the esophagus is:
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Peyer�s patches are lymph nodules found mostly in the:
Which of the following is a brush border enzyme?
Pepsinogen is secreted by:
Chief cells located only in the stomach
The pyloric sphincter is forcefully constricted and other stomach muscle inhibited by:
The hierarchy of enzyme function ______ must act before ____ can act
Typsin before aminopeptidase
The ____ stimulates gastric secretion during the cephalic phase and as a result of physical contact in the stomach
Three distinct bands of longitudinal smooth muscle are found in the:
The upper third of the esophagus has:
Skeletal muscle only
____ is/are responsible for emulsifying fats
Absorption of water occurs mostly in the:
Three distinct layers of smooth muscle are found in the:
If you see villi and goblet cells you are looking at the:
Positive feedback on stomach secretion and motility as acid chime reaches the pylorus results from the secretion into the bloodstream of:
Which of the following is/are true sphincters?
Pyloric and ileocecal sphincters
The ____ has Brunner�s glands which secrete an acid-neutralizing mucus
Hypersecretion of insulin occurs in:
Diabetes Type II and reactive hypoglycemia
(T/F) Fats are lipolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids when glycogen stores begin to run low
The primary hormone in the absorptive phase of glycemic regulation is:
(T/F) Fats are readily converted to glucose when glycogen stores run low
The hormone which stimulates lipolysis is:
Epinephrine and glucagon
An excessive amount of ___ can cause hypoglycemia
Deamination results in molecules of ____ which are exceted through the kidneys
Management of diabetes Type I is through:
Administration of insulin
Diabetes type I results from damage to the ___ pancreatic islet cells which secrete insufficient amounts of _____.
The hormone which stimulates glucose synthesis from amino acids during severe stress conditions is:
Most reabsorbed substances enter the interstitial fluid and the ______:
The hormone instrumental in facultative absorption of water is:
In the countercurrent exchange of salt, NaCl is taken fro the medulla into the _____ only to be returned to the medulla from the _____:
Descending limb of the vasa recta, ascending limb of the vasa recta
Most reabsorption of water occurs from the:
Proximal convoluted tubule
Deficient secretion of ____ produces diabetes insipidus
Stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system causes _____ of the ______.
Vasoconstriction, afferent arteriole
Aldosterone-controlled salt reabsorption occurs from the:
Distal convoluted tubule
The _____ is lined completely with transitional epithelium for stretchability.
In response to direct stimuli by the macula densa cells the:
Afferent arteriole vasodilates and the efferent arteriole vasoconstricts
The substance produced in response to renin which causes vasoconstriction in the efferent arteriole and arterioles is:
Which of the following is a normal constituent of urine:
The substance ____ is released by the juxtaglomerular cells when stimulated by the macula densa.
When large amounts of acid must be secreted the H+ are neutralized with amines and made into:
The cells which sense flow rate and salt concentration in the distal convoluted tubule are the:
Macula densa cells
The process of secretion occurs in all the following except:
The loop of Henle
Cortical blood vessels served by the efferent arteriole are the:
Facultative water reabsorption occurs from the:
The hormone, also known as vasopressin, which produces arteriole vasoconstriction when secreted in response to reduced blood volume is:
Most reabsorption of glucose occurs from the:
Proximal convoluted tubule
The ____ lead directly to the afferent arterioles.
Co-active transport is instrumental in the reabsorption of:
The blood vessels leading directly to the glomerulus are the:
Most reabsorption of glucose occurs from the:
Proximal convoluted tubule
When the blood is not acidic the most common cation secreted is:
The inner medulla is very _____ due to the countercurrent exchange of salt.
Direct myogenic response to increased blood pressure produces ____ in the _____.
Vasodilation, afferent arterioles
ACTH stimulates the release of all of the following except:
Testosterone and epinephrine
Which of the following hormones is produced by neurons origination in the hypothalamus:
Oxytocin and ADH
Secretion of PTH is triggered by:
Decreased plasma calcium levels
Releasing and inhibition hormones from the hypothalamus control hormones released from the:
The hormone which responds to infant sucking to produce continued milk after birth is:
Prolactin and oxytocin
Acromegly is a disorder associated with hypersecretion of:
Which of the following stimulates protein synthesis along with both carbohydrate and fat catabolism?
A decrease in plasma calcium levels triggers the secretion of:
The hormone which stimulates contration of uterin smooth muscle to produce labor is:
Which of the following g is NOT a cland controlled directly by plasma substrate levels:
Thyroid follicular cells (Islets of Langerhans, thyroid parafollicular cells, and parathyroid gland all controlled by substrate levels)
The ____ is directly stimulated by plasma levels of substrate.
Thyroid parafollicular cells, pancreas, parathyroid gland
Which of the following enters the nucleus of target cells to increase their basal metabolic rate?
The hypothalamus directly controls the ___ through releasing and inhibiting hormones.
In response to ___ the primary oocyte becomes ____.
LH, secondary oocyte
The hormone _____ is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum during the ovulatory cycle.
The uterine ____ phase and the ovarian ____ phase occur together.
Proliferative & follicular and secretory & luteal
The ____ stores hormones released from neurons originating in the hypothalamus
The hormone ___ is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum during early pregnancy.
Produces semen containing acid phosphatase which activates the spermatozoa.
The corpus luteum produces ______.
Estrogen and progesterone
The ____ is directly stimulated by the hypothalamus and not part of the hypothalamic-pituitary control mechanism.
The substance ____ feeds back to the hypothalamus to regulate spermatogenesis.
The hormone _____ is the primary cause of the ovary�s follicular phase
The hormone ___ is the primary hormone produced by the ovary during its follicular phase.
The hormone ____ is produced by the ovary during its lueal phase.
Estrogen and progesterone
In direct response to TRH, the _____ will secrete _____.
Anterior pituitary, TSH
The hormone _____ is the primary cause of the uterine proliferative phase.
Parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce:
A venous network which helps to maintain a temperature in the testicle which is several degrees below body temp.
As a result of increased energy demand, ____ is released by the hypothalamus.
Produces most seminal fluid containing nutrients and bicarbonate.
The portion of the uterus not subject to cyclic exfoliation is:
At birth a woman has a limited number of ____ which are found inside the ____.
Primary oocytes, primordial follicles
In the male ____ acts on the sustentacular (nurse) cells to cause the production of ____ which interacts with ___ causing spermatogenesis.
FSH, Androgen binding protein, testosterone
The tissue that responds to hormonal stimulation in cyclic buildup and exfoliation is:
Stratum functionalis of the endometrium
In response to ____ the mature follicle becomes _____.
LH, Corpus luteum
An interarterial anastomosis:
Provides collateral circulation of blood to a tissue or organ to compensate for a partial blockage.
An example of an arteriovenous anastomosis would be:
In the GI tract where blood is decreased during exercise
Gives rise to the umbilical artery
Internal iliac artery
Sends blood from the pulmonary to the systemic division in the fetus
A branch from the right coronary artery:
Fetal vessel which bypasses the liver:
GIves rise to the splenic, common hepatic, and left gastric arteris:
Which of the following are active phagocytes:
neutrophils and monocytes
Erythropoietin increases the _____ of red blood cell production.
Rate and proportion compared to wbc and platelets
Coumadin competes with _____ for receptors which stimulate production of clotting proteins.
Calcium ions are important for the:
Intrinsic, extrinsic, and common clotting pathways
Activaltion of genes that produce fetal hemoglobin can be used to manage sickle cell anemia because it has no ____ globin chains.
The tendency of red blood cells to stack up together before entering a capillary in single file.
The thin tan layer of white cells and platelets found at the end of the formed elements in an hematocrit tube is called the:
Most carbon dioxide is transported:
as an equilibrium between carbonic acid and its dissociation products
Before a clot forms, a _____ may be sufficient to produce hemostasis in damaged capillaries.
a platelet plug
The substance _____, produced by recombinant bacteria, is used to reduce damage in thrombosis occurring in embolitic stroke and myocardial infarction.
TPA (tissue plasminogen activator)
Your blood is redirected to the local areas of the skin during cold temperatures to avoid tissue damage. This is due to:
Your blood is directed away from the skin during cold temperatures. This is due to:
the vasomotor center
The pulse pressure is absent in the:
Veins, venules, and capillaries
The pulse pressure disappears (ends) in the:
The Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) is considered negative (inward flow) at the:
venous end of the capillaries
The muscular pump works together with _____ to move blood toward the heart where the pressure gradient is insufficient.
The greatest cross sectional area for the entire vascular component is found in the:
Stretched veins and/or semilunar valves:
Inflammation of a veins, often resulting in sluggish blood flow
A blood clot in a vessel
Obstruction of a blood vessel, usually by a clot which has moved from a different location
A balloon-like bulge in the wall of an artery
Smooth muscle is proportionally the greatest component of the tunica media in:
The type of capillaries found in the spleen is the:
A smooth lining for the vessels
A cell important in repair and replacement of capillaries
A pore which allows increased size and rate of transport
Gaps within tight junctions which allow molecular transport
Essentially the basement membrane, it contains collagen and othe pro-coagulants
Water and solutes which accumulate in the interstitial fluid from capillary filtration are returned to the circulation through:
the lymph system
As a result of exercise the cardiac center receives input from the:
A symptom of hemorrhagic loss of blood would be:
increased heart rate
The closing of the AV valves is due to:
increasing ventricular pressure
The mechanism called _____ maintains the moment to moment cardiac output and pressure.
the baroreceptor reflex
The long refractory period exhibited by myocardial cells is indicated by diagram number:
AV valves close at:
Which of the following will decrease cardiac output?
Increased ESV and increased peripheral resistance
This letter would be missing in sinus nodal block.
The ECG with a missing QRS peak shows:
The posterior interventricular artery forms an interaterial anastomosis with vessel _____ to provide collateral circulation to the myocardium.
Anterior interventricular artery
Increasing pressure due to ventricular contraction closes which valves?
Tricuspid and bicuspid valves
Between points B and C increased myocardial stretch will lead to _____ contractility.
An increase in the threshold of the hearts nodal myogenic cells will:
Decrease the rate of autorhythmicity
The second heart sound occurs as a result of valve closure due to:
Which of the following work as part of lymphokinetic motion in humans?
Smooth muscle in lymphatic vessels and downward pressure gradient in lymph system.
The labeling of antigens to make them more visible to phagocytes is called:
The lowest hydrostatic pressure is found in the:
large veins of the circulation
Which of the following work as part of the muscular pump in lymphokinetic motion in humans?
semilunar valves in lymphatic vessels
The _____ secrete interleukins I and II in response to contact with an activated macrophage.
The location of immunocopetence of T-cell lymphocytes is the:
The antibody receptors on immunocompetent B cells
Gamma globulins, these ultimately make up the bulk of the antibodies produced in response to infection
These are pentamers, and the first type of antibodies produced in response to infection
These antibodies are found in the body's secretions
These antibodies are produced in response to an allergen which is not pathogenic
Which of the following would you see in the ECG as the result of electrolyte imbalance:
The presence of a prominent U wave
Which of the following would you see in the ECG as the result of ischemia or myocardial infarction:
An abnormal or extra Q wave
Excessive elevation of the ST segment
Increasing the peripheral resistance would have a:
negative inotropic effect
Contractility and afterload are _______.
Contractility and preload are _______.
The superior mesenteric vein joins the _____ to produce the _____.
splenic vein, hepatic portal vein
The left gastric, common hepatic, and splenic arteries are all branches from the:
Explain what a beta blocker does that produces a negative inotropic (force related) effect.
Beta blockers block sympathetic stimulation of the myocardium, thus reducing its contractility.
Describe specifically how the cardiac cycle DIAGRAM would differ for the right heart compared to one for the left heart that we normally view.
The systolic pressure would be approximately one fifth as much in the right heart than in the left heart.
Identify the mechanism which results in rapid pulse rate as a result of hemorrhage.
The principle which describes the length-tension relationship for the heart is known as:
What does the kidney secrete that influences oxygen transport in the blood?
An increase in the threshold of the hearts myogenic cells will:
decrease the rate of autorhythmicity
The principle cause of an increased EDV is:
Increased venous return
An increase in EDU combined with a decrease in ESV will result in:
Increased cardiac efficiency, increased stroke volume, increased preload and decreased afterload