Islamic terms (set in progress)

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devinshire
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Islamic terms (set in progress)
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2011-12-22 07:04:23
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Selected terms from Arabic and Farsi.
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  1. ‘Abd (عبد)
    servant, worshipper, slave. Muslims consider themselves servants and slaves of God. Common Muslim names such as Abdullah (Servant of God), Abdul-Malik (Slave of the King), Abdur-Rahmān (Slave of the most Beneficent), Abdus-Salām (Slave of Peace), all refer to names of Allah.
  2. Ādhān (أذان)
    call to salat (prayer), sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced Azan, Athan and Adhan.
  3. AH
    anno hegirae The Islamic calendar starts counting years starting from the time when Muhammad had to leave Mecca and go to Medina, an event known as the Hijra: July 16, 622.
  4. Ākhirah (الآخرة)
    hereafter or eternal life
  5. ‘Ālim (عالِم)
    One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to Japanese sensei, "teacher".
  6. Āmīn (آمين)
    Amen, a supplication meaning, "O God, accept our invocation!".
  7. Aminah (آمنة)
    Muhammad's mother. Aminah fell sick and died in Abwa, near Madina (then Yathrib) when Muhammad was six years old.
  8. Arkan singular rukn (ركن/أركان)
    The five rukn "pillars" of Islam. (See rukn)
  9. A.S. ('Alayhis-salaam)
    This acronym evokes a blessing and is appended to the names of the prophets who came before Muhammad. It will also be applied to the mothers of those prophets. When following a woman's name, the feminine form is 'Alayhas-salaam.
  10. ‘Āshūrā’ (عاشوراء)
    Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on the sand dunes of Karbala. Sunni Scholars recommended to fast during this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death of the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala. They cry and weep and organize lamentating programmes where they not only learn how to live a proper Islamic life and improve their SpiritualSelf but also cry at the end of the ritual to show their true love and faith towards imam Hussayn.
  11. As-Salāmu ‘Alaykum (السلام عليكم)
    The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition, wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (ورحمة الله وبركاته) means "and the Mercy of God and His blessing". The response to this greeting is wa-‘Alaykum us-Salām wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (و عليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته) --"And on you be the Peace and Mercy of God and His Blessing".
  12. Āyah (آية), plural āyāt (آيات)
    A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.
  13. Āyatullāh (آية الله, also spelled Ayatollah)
    Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Sh'ia sect.
  14. Bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi (بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم)
    "In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful".
  15. Caliph (خليفة khalīfah)
    literally successor; refers to the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, the ruler of an Islamic theocracy.
  16. Faqih (pl. fuqaha)
    One who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and jurisprudence. (see fiqh)
  17. Al-Faraj
    the return of the Shia Mahdi
  18. Fatiha
    the short, opening sura of the Qur'an, which begins "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds..." These words hold an important place in Muslim liturgies and forms the core of the salat.
  19. Fiqh (فقه)
    jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws. (see faqih)
  20. Fi sabil Allah (في سبيل الله)
    for the sake of Allah; common Islamic expression for performing acts such as charity or Jihad and for 'qatlu' (fighting in mortal combat for the sake of Allah)
  21. Ghazi (غازى)
    (archaic) roughly, "raider": a holy warrior; a mujahid
  22. Hadha min fadhle Rabbi (هَذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّي)
    Qur'anic expression and phrase meaning This is by the Grace of my Lord.
  23. Hādī (هادي)
    a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for God is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.
  24. Hadith (حديث ḥadīth) plural ahādīth
    literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
  25. Ḥāfiẓ (حافظ)
    someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.
  26. Hajj (الحجّ haj)
    pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam
  27. Hajjaj (حاجّ)
    Pilgrim, one who has made the Hajj.
  28. Five pillars of SHI'A Islam
    • Monotheism, God is one and unique.
    • Justice, the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, fairness, and equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics.
    • Prophethood, the institution by which God sends emissaries, or prophets, to guide mankind.
    • Leadership, A divine institution which succeeded the institution of Prophethood. Its appointees (Imams) are divinely appointed.
    • Last Judgment, God's final assessment of humanity.
  29. Five pillars of SUNNI Islam
    • (1) the shahada (creed)
    • (2) daily prayers (salat)
    • (3) fasting during Ramadan (sawm)
    • (4) almsgiving (zakāt)
    • (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.
  30. Ḥasan (حسن)
    Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).
  31. Hijra (الهجرة)
    Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration". This holiday marks the beginning of the Muslim New Year onthe first day of the month of Muharram.
  32. ‘Id (عيد)
    festival or celebration. Alternatively tranliterated Eid.
  33. ‘Id ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر)
    "the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
  34. Ifṭār (إفطار)
    a meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the month of Ramadan.
  35. Ilāh (إله)
    deity, a god; including gods worshiped by polytheists.
  36. Imām (إمام)
    literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer;the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve Allah-appointed successors of Prophet Muhammad.
  37. Imān (إيمان)
    personal faith
  38. Insha'Allah (إن شاء الله)
    If it is God's will; Inshallah is "resigned, accepting, neutral, passive. It is neither optimistic nor pessimistic."
  39. ‘Īsā (عيسى)
    Jesus - 'Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), a matronymic (since he had no biological father. The Qur'an asserts that Allah has nosons and therefore, 'Isa is not the son of Allah. Muslims honor 'Isa as a nabi (prophet) and rasul (apostle).
  40. Islam (الإسلام)
    "submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.
  41. Jahannam (جهنم)
    the Hell-fire; Hell
  42. Jannah (جنة)
    Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
  43. Jazakallahu Khayran (جزاك الله خير)
    "May God reward you for the good." Islamic expression of gratitude.
  44. Jihād (جهاد)
    struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, for righteousness and against wrong-doing;
  45. Jihād al Saghir
    Offensive jihad declared by caliph.
  46. Jihād al talab
    Offensive jihad.
  47. Jihād al daf’a
    Defensive jihad.
  48. Jihād bil mal
    Financial jihad.
  49. Jihād bis saif ( جهاد بسيف)
    literally 'struggle by the sword'; holy war.
  50. Ka‘bah (الكعبة)
    cube-house; the cube-shaped building i.e. in Mecca toward which Muslims pray.
  51. Khuṭbah (خطبة)
    the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer.
  52. Kitāb (كتاب)
    book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitāb" (The Book).
  53. Kun (كن)
    God's command to the universe, 'Be!' is sufficient to create it.
  54. Laylat al-Qadr (ليلة القدر)
    the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an.
  55. Madrasah (مدرسة)
    school, university
  56. Mahdi (مهدي)
    "a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression.
  57. Mahram (محرم)
    a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.
  58. Malā’ikah (ملائكة)
    angels (Sing. Malak). It was one of these mala'ika, Jibril (Gabriel) who delivered Allah's revelation to Muhammad.
  59. Masha Allah (ما شاء الله)
    Allah has willed it.
  60. Medina (مدينة Madīnah)
    "city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra (Islam).
  61. Minbar (منبر)
    a raised pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermons
  62. Mu'adhdhin (مأذن)
    a person who performs the call to prayer
  63. Muftī (مفتى)
    an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").
  64. Mullah (ملا)
    are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).
  65. Mut‘ah (متعه)
    literally joy; a type of temporary marriage practiced only by the Shī‘ah; or a practice between ‘Umrah and Ḥajj.
  66. P.B.U.H.
    an acronym that stands for "peace be unto him" a blessing which is affixed to Muhammad's name whenever it is written. In some circles and English writings, Sufis regard PBUH to signify "Peace and Blessings Upon Him" (the Rasul or Messenger of Allah).[5] These are the primary English explications of the P.B.U.H. acronym. The Arabic version is S.A.W.
  67. Qiblah
    the direction Muslims face during prayer
  68. Qur’ān (القرآن)
    The word Qur'an means recitation. Muslims believe the Qur'an (Koran) to be the literal word of God and the culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to prophet Muhammadin the year AD 610 in the cave Hira by the angel Jibril.
  69. Rahim (رحيم)
    compassionate; Ar-Rahim (الرحيم) means "The Most Compassionate" as in the Basmala
  70. Rajm (رجم)
    the practice of stoning
  71. Raka'ah
    one unit of Islamicprayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of raka'ah.
  72. Ramadhan
    month of fasting when the Qur'an was first revealed
  73. Sayyid (سيّد)
    (in everyday usage, equivalent to 'Mr.') a descendant of a relative of Muhammad, usually via Husayn.
  74. Shahīd (شهيد) pl. shuhada (شهداء)
    witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in "jihad fee sybil Allah" (jihad for the sake of Allah). Often used in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of soldiers, deaths in battle, et cetera) which are viewed by some Muslims as a spiritual cause not just a political cause. But the real meaning of Jihad is to defend Islam in any way; thus, it could be in an economic way or could refer to fighting for the rights of the oppressed or the believers; most often it refers to mastering one's own inclination for evil and shirk (idolatry).
  75. Shaykh (شيخ)
    a spiritual master, Muslim clergy
  76. Sharī‘ah (الشريعة)
    "the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh (jurisprudence)
  77. Sharīf (شريف)
    a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
  78. Sunni (سنّي)
    the largest denomination of Islam. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah (Arabic: سنة), which means the words and actions or example of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
  79. Shī‘ah (الشيعة)
    A branch of Islam who believe in Imam Ali and his sons (Hassan and Hussayn) as custodians of Islam by the will of the Prophet Mohammed.
  80. Sūrah (سورة)
    chapter; the Qur'an is composed of 114 suras
  81. Taqwa (تقوى)
    righteousness; goodness; Piety: Taqwa is taken from the verb Ittaqua, which means Avoiding, Fearing the punishment from Allah for committing sins. It is piety obtained by fearing the punishment of Allah.
  82. Tatbeer
    Shia Ashura ceremony of self-flagellation by hitting head with sword. (See zinjeer)
  83. ‘Ulamā’ (علماء) or ulemathe
    leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Singular alim.
  84. Ummah (الاُمّة) or umma
    (literally 'nation') the global community of all Muslim believers
  85. ‘Umrah (عمرة)
    the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, ‘umrah can be performed throughout the year.
  86. Wa ‘Alaykum as-Salaam (و عليكم السلام)
    Wa ‘Alaykum as-Salaam!, meaning "and upon you be peace". (see As-Salamu Alaykum)
  87. Yarhamuk-Allah (يرحمك الله)
    "May God have mercy on you", said when someone sneezes; the same as "(God) bless you" in English
  88. Zakat (زكاة), Al-Maal
    tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.

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