History of Social Psychology

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History of Social Psychology
2011-12-06 05:37:14
social psychology

History of Social Psychology
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  1. What is Allport's (1954) definition of social psychology?
    'The scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied prescence of others'.
  2. What is the principle of the naive scientist?
    We try and anticipate what others do based on previous experiences.
  3. Which Ancient Greek philosopher said that we form groups because we cannot achieve everything alone?
  4. Which Ancient Greek philosopher said that we come together in groups because we have an inherent need to do so?
  5. Who was the first person to link what goes on in our heads to the outside world?
    William James (1842-1910)
  6. Who was the originator of much of our understanding of internal motivation, and thus our social interaction?
    Freud (1856-1939)
  7. Who carried out the psychology of the crowd experiments in France?
    Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931)
  8. Le Bon coined ____ theory which said that one person's behaviour in a crowd radiates and everyone follows suit.
  9. One aim of social psychology is to understand behaviour, as this means we may also be able to ____ it.
  10. What characterises the methods of traditional social psychology?
    • Scientific Approach
    • Objectivity (not relying on intuition/experience)
    • Rationality (unbiased)
    • Reliability
    • Validity

    Clear-cut, structured ways of investigating.
  11. Which event was a defining moment for social psychology?
    The Holocaust
  12. The events of WWII caused psychologists to seek to explain the origins of ____ and ____.
    Prejudice, Conformity
  13. Which two researchers first attempted to explain prejudice?
    Adorno (1950), Tajfel (1974)
  14. Which three researchers first attempted to explain group behaviours and obedience?
    Milgram (1963, 1974), Asch (1951), Zimbardo (1971)
  15. Social cognition attempts to explain the _____ in social behaviours.
    Cognitive processes
  16. Social cognition seeks to establish ___ we engage in types of behaviour.
  17. What is Fiske and Taylor's (1991) definition of social cognition?
    How people make sense of other people and themselves... and at least some concern with real-world social issues.
  18. What is the term for the idea that we simplify our understanding of the world around us?
    Cognitive miser
  19. The idea of the cognitive miser is as aspect of ____.
    Social cognition
  20. What are the other five aspects of social cognition besides the cognitive miser?
    • Heuristics
    • Categorisation
    • Stereotypes
    • Attitudes
    • Attributions
  21. Streotypes are ____ about people.
  22. When we attribute causation to people, this is ____.
  23. When we attribute causation to circumstance, this is ___.
  24. Social cognition can be applied to interpersonal relations, health behaviour, decision making and ___.
  25. When was the crisis point of social psychology?
    The 1960's
  26. Who challenged social psychology and said that it needed to fit the scientific paradigm?
    Ring (1967)
  27. What were the methodological concerns in the 1960's regarding social psychology?
    Ecological validity very low (taking people out of their natural habitat).
  28. What emerged in 1974 as a result of the 1960's criticisms?
    Social constructionism
  29. Social constructionism recognised the influence of ____, ____ and ____ on social psychology.
    Time, Place, Culture
  30. Social constructionism aimed to recognise the ____ nature of social behaviour.
  31. What was the active rejection of traditional psychology?
    Critical psychology
  32. What themes of study did the critical approach encompass?
    Politcal movements - feminism, gay/lesbian liberation, civil rights, environmentalism.
  33. Critical psychology marked a move away from ___ based study.
  34. Constructionist socail psycology has diversified by looking at ___.