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Between molecules/ atoms /ions
between atoms themselves
Intermolcular focres (types)
- hydrogen bonding
Dispersion increases with..
Dipoledipole occurs in
Hydrogen bonding (super dipole) occurs when
hydrogen atoms bonded directly (intra-molecularly) to fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen
Most electronegative element is
List forces from strongest to weakest
(intra) 1 Ionic 2 covalent (inter) 3 hydrogen 4 dipole-dipole 5 dispersion
intermolecular forces are directly related to
surface tension and viscosity
The ability to mix without separating into two phases is called
Miscibility-what mixes with what?
- Polar with polar, nonpolar with nonpolar
- like dissolves like
is the resistance of a liquid to flow.
Liquids that are viscous flow more slowly than liquids that are not viscous.
Strongest intermolecular forces to weakest:
solids > liquids > gases
pressure existing from transition from liquid to gas
reached over time with stoped solution of fluxuating between gas and liquid constantly
Liquids that evaporate easily are termed
Liquids that do not vaporize easily
The rate of vaporization increases with
- •Increasing surface area
- • Increasing temperature;
- •Decreasing strength of intermolecular forces
Heat of fusion
The amount of heat required to melt 1 mol of a solid
The heat of fusion for water is
During boiling, the temperature remains
at 100°C until
all the liquid is evaporated.
The amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid is
the heat of vaporization (ΔHvap).
The heat of vaporization of water at its normal boiling point (100 °C) is
Melting and boiling points will be higher for substances that
have stronger inter/intra forces
Electrolyte solutions contain
- dissolved ions (charged
- particles) and therefore conduct electricity.
Nonelectrolyte solutions contain
dissolved molecules (neutral particles) and so do not conduct electricity.
The higher the pressure of a gas above a liquid, the more soluble the gas is in the liquid.
The solubility of gases in water
- increases with increasing pressure above the
- moles solute / liter
- of solution
M1V1 = M2V2
The Arrhenius Definition of Acids
An acid produces H+ ions in aqueous solution
The Arrhenius Definition of Bases
- A base produces OH− ions
- in aqueous solution.
The brønsted-Lowery Definition of Acids and Bases
acid is H donor, base is H acceptor
can act as either an acid or a base
Do i need to know leuis base?
- hydrochloric acid (HCl)
- hydrobromic acid (HBr)
- Hydroiodic acid (HI)
- Nitric acid (HNO3)
- Perchloric acid (HCLO4)
- Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
- lithium hydroxide (LiOH)
- sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
- potassium hydroxide (KOH)
- strontium hydroxide (SrOH)2)
- Calcium hydroxide (CA(OH)2)
- barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2)
Titration is a technique that uses reaction stoichiometry to determine the concentration of an unknown solution.
is a technique that uses reaction stoichiometry to determine the concentration of an unknown solution.
Hydronium Ion Concentration