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- The entire Hebrew Bible consisting of
- Torah (law)
- Nebi'im (prophets)
- Ketrvim (sacred writings).
- 313-318, Constantine came to power and Rome was the capital. He moved his seat of power to Byzantium and changed the name to Constantinople. Concluded that the Roman empire was too huge to be ruled by one man in one place. Created a co-emperor in east and one in west. Constantinople ruled the east.
- Edict of Milan- Constantine concluded that “All religions should be tolerated” but then made Christianity the official religion of the empire a few years later
(11th century CE)—oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible
Doctrine concerning the end of an age
- Augustinian monk and thological scholar
- objected to the Churches proace of selling indulfences: releases from time in purgatory
- Proposed a list of 95 propositions which criticized various church practices
- Wanted to reform the understanding of the nature of sin and redemptiondid not approve of Penance
Material in the Talmud of Legal nature
Dead Sea Scrolls
a collection of manuscripts from the Maccabean and early Roman period. widely believed to be written by the Judean Essenes
- Biblical and Sectarian scrolls
- Essene community. “Sons of light.”
- Teacher of Righteousness. Dissident priest.
- “New Covenant.”
- Rigorous rules guiding the life of the sect.
- Revealed knowledge of how to interpret the Torah
- Critical of the Temple. And the Pharisees.
- Expected two messiahs—the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel
- Eschatological worldview. The War Scroll.
- widely believed to be the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls
- Rigorous devotion to law
Council of Nicea
Called by Constantine in 325 to unify the Church and promote stability in the empire
- Characteristics of Apocalyptic literature:
- 1.Supernatural revelation. Visions.
- 3.Final Judgment
- 4.Intentionally cryptic
- 5.Angelic interpreters
- 6.Rewards and punishments after death
- Apocalyptic movements flourish in times of crisis
- Crucial for later Christianity (and Islam)
- Develops in Judaism, 2nd-1st centuries BCE
- Most ancient apocalypses NOT in the Bible
- Daniel, 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch
populist purity movement
aristocratic temple priests
The Documentary Hypothesis (J, E, D, P)
Theory (1984) that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses [one person] but is a compilation from many sources compiled over time.
- 1.J: Yahwist. YHWH (“Lord”).
- Folkloric. Literary. God is anthropomorphic.
2.E: Elohist. Elohim (“God”). God is more distant and appears in visions.
3.D: Deuteronomist. Not in Genesis.
- 4.P: Priestly. Ritual. Laws. The name
- “YHWH” first revealed to Moses.
- Lesser Jihad- struggle between the faithful and the infidel
- reflects the emergence of the explicit doctrine of the Trinity: that God has 3 manifistations: Father, Son, Holy Spirit
- The Western Church under the bishop of Rome, changes the Nicean Creed, saying that the Spirit comes after the Father and the Son. They did this without discussing this with any of the Bishops in the Eastern Church. This caused a sort of divide and the Eastern Orthodox church said they would no longer use Latin and the Western church said they would no longer use Greek in their service.
the body of texts reporting Muhammad's words and example. Taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the literature
the 'life-example' of Muhammads words and deeds, based mainly on the Hadith literature, after the Qur'an, the primary source of guidance for Muslims
- celebrates the victory of the Maccabean Jews over their oppressors in the mid-century BCE
- also celebrates the purification and rededication (Hanukkah) of the temple after it had been profaned
5 Pillars of Islam
- 1. Shahadah- professing monotheism and accepting that Muhammed is gods messenger
- 2. Salat- 5 daily prayers facing Mecca
- 3. Sawm- fasting
- 4. Zakāh- giving alms (charity)
- 5. Hajj- pilgrimage
- the Caliph was the Prophet's successor as the head of the Muslim community
- the position became institutionalized in the form of the caliphate, which lasted from 632 to 1924
- allow women rabbis
- emphasis on present rather then past
- laws regulating diet, priestly purity, and dress do not conduce holiness and are not contemporary
- small shrine located in the centre of the Great Mosque in Mecca and considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most holy place.
- Supposedly built by Abraham and Ishmael
- God in three forms: The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit
- as stated in the Nicean Creed
- ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament.
- This is what the New Testament cites. 2nd century
- all Muslims place authority in Muhammad as the last prophet
- moved capital from Mecca to Medina then back to Mecca
the specific regulations of the Islamic Law
- The capital of the Muslim community. (was Medina briefly, then moved back to Mecca)
- destination of Hajj [pilgrimage]
- Muhammad's birthplace
in Hellenistic times, the term comes to mean 'an ideal king who is expected to arrive at some unspecified time in the future, to lead Israel to victory, demonstrating God's power and vindicating God's reputation'
Arabic for "the God" is the same God worshiped by Jews and Christians,
- The Maccabees were a group of Judean resistence fighters who revolted against the Seleucids of Syria and recaptured Jerusalem in 164 BCE
- lead by guerilla fighter who's nicknames was Macabbeas (hammer). His family name is Hasmoneous
(“my master”). Experts in Jewish traditions. Not priests.
City in Upper Egypt
considered to be a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Orthodoxy against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
- The watchword of Israel's faith, repeated morning and evening, as the text specifies
- Found in Deuteronomy
- acknowledges the oneness of God
commentary on the Qur'an
Muslims who trace succession to the Prophet's authority through the caliphate, which lasted until the 20th century; the larger of the 2 main divisions of Islam, accounting for 5/6 of Muslims today
Muslims who trace the successtion of the Prophet's authority through imams in the lineage of 'Ali'. The smaller of the 2 main divisions of Islam, accounting for about 1/6 of all Muslims today
important point discussed in review: men and women (in most societies practicing Sufism) are equally seen and heard
- Hebrew summary of oral law-inherieted from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses-arranged by topic
- authority parralleling that of written Torah
- “Chapters of the Father”
- the second covenant that God makes is with Abraham
- God promises Abraham that his descendants will inhabit the land of Canaan.
- awarded for his deep faith by being allowed to live into old age and burried with ancestors, but there is no suggestion for a reward after death
- in relation to Athanatius. Early Christian dispute. Argued about whether Jesus and God were 1.
- Arius said that there was a moment that there was God before there was a son.
- Led to Council of Nicea, Arius was executed
- during his time, the Trinity was the subject of intense controversy
- to hopefully unify his divided church, he called the bishops to meet at the COuncil of Nicaea, near Constantinople in 325
Antiochus Epiphanes IV
- Seleucid King 175-164 BCE
- anti-Judaism policies
- put a pagan idol in the Jerusalem temple
- the one who was defiling and raiding Jerusalem's temple and caused the Maccabean revolt
- central text of mainstream Judiasm
- oral Torah
- 2 versions: Babylonian and Jerusalem (Babylonian is more authoritative)
- long period of autonomous rule. When the revolutionaries recapture the temple and rededicate it, it’s the basis for the holiday of Hanukkah.
- came to power as a result of the Maccabean Revolt
- critical interpretation or analysis of a text- one of the ciritcisms of Christian theologians by Jewish theologians says that they do not take a literal enough view of the text
- Development of a code of ethics through the interpretation of scripture
a group with distinctive religious beliefs within another broader religion
- books. Books removed from the Old
- Testament by Protestants.
- 'Hillel the Elder'
- Hillel said: “That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn” (Babylonian Talmud, Shabuot 31a)
- Hillel said: “Be disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and bringing them nigh to the Law” (Avot 1.12)
the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity
- an agreement or contract specifying exactly what human behavior is accaptable to God and giving a divine mandate to the Israelites' societal laws
- the 2ed Covenant that God makes is with Abraham- God promises him that his descendants will inhabit the land of Canaan
- (from Murphey reading)
- mixing of cultures
- the interactions between cultures and ideas to create a new entity
Jews banned from Jerusalem
- emphasizes preservation of Jewish tradition
- conduct services in Hebrew and observe Sabbarth obligations based on ancient rules found in the Bible
- do not allow female rabbis
Sources of the Gospels
- parables- stories designed to teach a moral lesson
- Luke and Matthew use Mark's narrative as a source for their accounts
- Q- hypothetical document that Matthew and Luke used in their writings as a source
- pharisee from a diaspora Jewish community
- his letters are the earliest Christian literature and their formative effect on Christianity is large
- executed a Martyr during Nero's execution of the Christians
- Germany, Scandanavia
- sccripture, personal peity, vernacular worship
- England (1534) Henry VIII
- Church of England
- John Calvin (1509-1564)
- theocracy governed by exiled protestants
- divine grace, sovereignty of God
- Reformed (Holland) and Presbyterian (UK) churches
Council of Trent
- reaffirmed church tradition
- some reforms
- important to English
- peiesthood of believers
- Baptism for adults
- Fox (1624-1691) charged with blasphemy
- sprititual insight not through institutional religion
- Penn founded colony of Pennsylvania
- John Wesley (1703-1791)
- spiritual renewal
- social reform
- 19th century
- rejected trinity
- progressive social causes
- Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
- Book of Mormon "another gospel of Jesus"
- fled to Utah
- someone who speaks on behalf of someone else
- an embassador
- A Razul- is binding a certain law universally
- “Sharia” sharia is the same sort of instruction as Moses
- Qur’an says there has been 5 Razuls: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad
- “submission to Allah”
- is understood as a religious institution. It is distinct from Iman-which is ‘inside’ it can only be known between the individual and god
- Islam is reflected by how a person holds themselves ethically .
- 5 pillars, giving alms, hajj, praying 5 times a day, fasting on Ramadan