REL1300 Final

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REL1300 Final
2011-12-12 13:34:47
religion Jewish CHristian Islam

religion, Jewish, CHristian, Islam
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  1. TaNak
    • The entire Hebrew Bible consisting of
    • Torah (law)
    • Nebi'im (prophets)
    • Ketrvim (sacred writings).
  2. Byzantium/Constantinople
    • 313-318, Constantine came to power and Rome was the capital. He moved his seat of power to Byzantium and changed the name to Constantinople. Concluded that the Roman empire was too huge to be ruled by one man in one place. Created a co-emperor in east and one in west. Constantinople ruled the east.
    • Edict of Milan- Constantine concluded that “All religions should be tolerated” but then made Christianity the official religion of the empire a few years later
  3. Leningrad Cotex
    (11th century CE)—oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible
  4. Eschatology
    Doctrine concerning the end of an age
  5. Martin Luther
    • Augustinian monk and thological scholar
    • objected to the Churches proace of selling indulfences: releases from time in purgatory
    • Proposed a list of 95 propositions which criticized various church practices
    • Wanted to reform the understanding of the nature of sin and redemptiondid not approve of Penance
  6. Halakah
    Material in the Talmud of Legal nature
  7. Dead Sea Scrolls
    a collection of manuscripts from the Maccabean and early Roman period. widely believed to be written by the Judean Essenes

    • Biblical and Sectarian scrolls
    • Essene community. “Sons of light.”
    • Teacher of Righteousness. Dissident priest.
    • “New Covenant.”
    • Rigorous rules guiding the life of the sect.
    • Revealed knowledge of how to interpret the Torah
    • Critical of the Temple. And the Pharisees.
    • Expected two messiahs—the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel
    • Eschatological worldview. The War Scroll.
  8. Essenes
    • widely believed to be the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls
    • Rigorous devotion to law
  9. Council of Nicea
    Called by Constantine in 325 to unify the Church and promote stability in the empire
  10. Apocalypticism
    • Characteristics of Apocalyptic literature:
    • 1.Supernatural revelation. Visions.
    • 2.Eschatology
    • 3.Final Judgment
    • 4.Intentionally cryptic
    • 5.Angelic interpreters
    • 6.Rewards and punishments after death
    • 7.Dualism

    • Apocalyptic movements flourish in times of crisis
    • Crucial for later Christianity (and Islam)
    • Develops in Judaism, 2nd-1st centuries BCE
    • Most ancient apocalypses NOT in the Bible
    • Daniel, 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch
  11. Pharisees
    populist purity movement
  12. Sadducees
    aristocratic temple priests
  13. The Documentary Hypothesis (J, E, D, P)
    Theory (1984) that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses [one person] but is a compilation from many sources compiled over time.

    • 1.J: Yahwist. YHWH (“Lord”).
    • Folkloric. Literary. God is anthropomorphic.

    2.E: Elohist. Elohim (“God”). God is more distant and appears in visions.

    3.D: Deuteronomist. Not in Genesis.

    • 4.P: Priestly. Ritual. Laws. The name
    • “YHWH” first revealed to Moses.
  14. Jihad
    • 'struggle'
    • Lesser Jihad- struggle between the faithful and the infidel
  15. Nicean Creed
    • reflects the emergence of the explicit doctrine of the Trinity: that God has 3 manifistations: Father, Son, Holy Spirit
    • The Western Church under the bishop of Rome, changes the Nicean Creed, saying that the Spirit comes after the Father and the Son. They did this without discussing this with any of the Bishops in the Eastern Church. This caused a sort of divide and the Eastern Orthodox church said they would no longer use Latin and the Western church said they would no longer use Greek in their service.
  16. Hadith
    the body of texts reporting Muhammad's words and example. Taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the literature
  17. Sunnah
    the 'life-example' of Muhammads words and deeds, based mainly on the Hadith literature, after the Qur'an, the primary source of guidance for Muslims
  18. Hanukkah
    • celebrates the victory of the Maccabean Jews over their oppressors in the mid-century BCE
    • also celebrates the purification and rededication (Hanukkah) of the temple after it had been profaned
  19. 5 Pillars of Islam
    • 1. Shahadah- professing monotheism and accepting that Muhammed is gods messenger
    • 2. Salat- 5 daily prayers facing Mecca
    • 3. Sawm- fasting
    • 4. Zakāh- giving alms (charity)
    • 5. Hajj- pilgrimage
  20. Caliph/Caliphate
    • the Caliph was the Prophet's successor as the head of the Muslim community
    • the position became institutionalized in the form of the caliphate, which lasted from 632 to 1924
  21. Reform Judiasm
    • allow women rabbis
    • emphasis on present rather then past
    • laws regulating diet, priestly purity, and dress do not conduce holiness and are not contemporary
  22. Ka'bah
    • small shrine located in the centre of the Great Mosque in Mecca and considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most holy place.
    • Supposedly built by Abraham and Ishmael
  23. Trinity
    • God in three forms: The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit
    • as stated in the Nicean Creed
  24. Septuagint
    • ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament.
    • This is what the New Testament cites. 2nd century
    • BCE.
  25. Muhammad
    • all Muslims place authority in Muhammad as the last prophet
    • moved capital from Mecca to Medina then back to Mecca
  26. Shariah
    the specific regulations of the Islamic Law
  27. Mecca
    • The capital of the Muslim community. (was Medina briefly, then moved back to Mecca)
    • destination of Hajj [pilgrimage]
    • Muhammad's birthplace
  28. messiah
    in Hellenistic times, the term comes to mean 'an ideal king who is expected to arrive at some unspecified time in the future, to lead Israel to victory, demonstrating God's power and vindicating God's reputation'
  29. Allah
    Arabic for "the God" is the same God worshiped by Jews and Christians,
  30. Maccabean Revolt
    • The Maccabees were a group of Judean resistence fighters who revolted against the Seleucids of Syria and recaptured Jerusalem in 164 BCE
    • lead by guerilla fighter who's nicknames was Macabbeas (hammer). His family name is Hasmoneous
  31. rabbi
    (“my master”). Experts in Jewish traditions. Not priests.
  32. Nag Hammadi
    City in Upper Egypt
  33. Athanasius
    considered to be a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Orthodoxy against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
  34. Shema Prayer
    • The watchword of Israel's faith, repeated morning and evening, as the text specifies
    • Found in Deuteronomy
    • acknowledges the oneness of God
  35. tafsir
    commentary on the Qur'an
  36. Sunni
    Muslims who trace succession to the Prophet's authority through the caliphate, which lasted until the 20th century; the larger of the 2 main divisions of Islam, accounting for 5/6 of Muslims today
  37. Shi'a
    Muslims who trace the successtion of the Prophet's authority through imams in the lineage of 'Ali'. The smaller of the 2 main divisions of Islam, accounting for about 1/6 of all Muslims today
  38. Sufis
    important point discussed in review: men and women (in most societies practicing Sufism) are equally seen and heard
  39. Mishnah
    • Hebrew summary of oral law-inherieted from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses-arranged by topic
    • authority parralleling that of written Torah
    • “Chapters of the Father”
  40. Abraham
    • the second covenant that God makes is with Abraham
    • God promises Abraham that his descendants will inhabit the land of Canaan.
    • awarded for his deep faith by being allowed to live into old age and burried with ancestors, but there is no suggestion for a reward after death
  41. Arius
    • in relation to Athanatius. Early Christian dispute. Argued about whether Jesus and God were 1.
    • Arius said that there was a moment that there was God before there was a son.
    • Led to Council of Nicea, Arius was executed
  42. Constantine
    • during his time, the Trinity was the subject of intense controversy
    • to hopefully unify his divided church, he called the bishops to meet at the COuncil of Nicaea, near Constantinople in 325
  43. Antiochus Epiphanes IV
    • Seleucid King 175-164 BCE
    • anti-Judaism policies
    • put a pagan idol in the Jerusalem temple
    • the one who was defiling and raiding Jerusalem's temple and caused the Maccabean revolt
  44. Talmud
    • central text of mainstream Judiasm
    • oral Torah
    • 2 versions: Babylonian and Jerusalem (Babylonian is more authoritative)
  45. Hasmonean Dynasty
    • long period of autonomous rule. When the revolutionaries recapture the temple and rededicate it, it’s the basis for the holiday of Hanukkah.
    • came to power as a result of the Maccabean Revolt
  46. exegesis
    • critical interpretation or analysis of a text- one of the ciritcisms of Christian theologians by Jewish theologians says that they do not take a literal enough view of the text
    • Development of a code of ethics through the interpretation of scripture
  47. sect
    a group with distinctive religious beliefs within another broader religion
  48. Apocrypha
    • “hidden”
    • books. Books removed from the Old
    • Testament by Protestants.
  49. Hillel
    • Shammai
    • 'Hillel the Elder'
    • Hillel said: “That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn” (Babylonian Talmud, Shabuot 31a)
    • Hillel said: “Be disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and bringing them nigh to the Law” (Avot 1.12)
  50. Pentateuch
    the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity
  51. Covenant
    • an agreement or contract specifying exactly what human behavior is accaptable to God and giving a divine mandate to the Israelites' societal laws
    • the 2ed Covenant that God makes is with Abraham- God promises him that his descendants will inhabit the land of Canaan
  52. syncretism
    • (from Murphey reading)
    • mixing of cultures
    • the interactions between cultures and ideas to create a new entity
  53. diaspora
    Jews banned from Jerusalem
  54. Orthodox Judiasm
    • emphasizes preservation of Jewish tradition
    • conduct services in Hebrew and observe Sabbarth obligations based on ancient rules found in the Bible
    • kosher
    • do not allow female rabbis
  55. Sources of the Gospels
    • parables- stories designed to teach a moral lesson
    • proverbs
    • Luke and Matthew use Mark's narrative as a source for their accounts
    • Q- hypothetical document that Matthew and Luke used in their writings as a source
  56. Paul
    • pharisee from a diaspora Jewish community
    • his letters are the earliest Christian literature and their formative effect on Christianity is large
    • executed a Martyr during Nero's execution of the Christians
  57. Lutheranism
    • Germany, Scandanavia
    • sccripture, personal peity, vernacular worship
  58. Anglicanism
    • England (1534) Henry VIII
    • Church of England
  59. Calvinsim
    • John Calvin (1509-1564)
    • Switzerland
    • theocracy governed by exiled protestants
    • divine grace, sovereignty of God
    • predestination
    • Reformed (Holland) and Presbyterian (UK) churches
  60. Council of Trent
    • (1545-1563)
    • reaffirmed church tradition
    • some reforms
  61. Puritans
    • strict
    • iconoclastic
    • important to English
  62. Baptists
    • anti-monarchy
    • hierarchy
    • peiesthood of believers
    • Baptism for adults
  63. Quakers
    • Fox (1624-1691) charged with blasphemy
    • sprititual insight not through institutional religion
    • Penn founded colony of Pennsylvania
  64. Methodism
    • John Wesley (1703-1791)
    • revivalism
    • spiritual renewal
    • social reform
    • anti-slavery
  65. Unitarianism
    • 19th century
    • rejected trinity
    • progressive social causes
  66. Mormons
    • Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
    • Book of Mormon "another gospel of Jesus"
    • polygamist
    • persecuted
    • fled to Utah
  67. "Navi"
    • prophet
    • someone who speaks on behalf of someone else
    • an embassador
  68. Razul
    • A Razul- is binding a certain law universally
    • “Sharia” sharia is the same sort of instruction as Moses
    • Qur’an says there has been 5 Razuls: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad
  69. Islam
    • “submission to Allah”
    • is understood as a religious institution. It is distinct from Iman-which is ‘inside’ it can only be known between the individual and god
    • Islam is reflected by how a person holds themselves ethically .
    • 5 pillars, giving alms, hajj, praying 5 times a day, fasting on Ramadan