Vision - Psychobiology

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rach123
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Vision - Psychobiology
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2011-12-07 05:31:37
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Vision Psychobiology
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Vision - Psychobiology
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  1. Approximately ___% of the cerebral cortex plays a direct role in the analysis of visual information.
    20
  2. Our eyes detect the prescence of ___.
    Light
  3. For humans, light is a narrow band of the spectrum of ___.
    Electromagnetic radiation
  4. The image must be focused on the ___ for us to see.
    Retina
  5. The ___ contains photoreceptors.
    Retina
  6. Humans have ___ million rods.
    120
  7. Humans have ___ million cones.
    6
  8. ___ are more sensitive to light.
    Rods
  9. ___ provide us with most of the information about our environment.
    Cones
  10. We use ___ vision in a very dimly lighted environment.
    Rod
  11. ___ are responsible for daytime vision.
    Cones
  12. ___ are most prevalent in the peripheral retina.
    Rods
  13. The fovea contains only ____.
    Cones
  14. The fovea is the central region of the retina which mediates our most ___ vision.
    Acute
  15. ___ only provide onochromatic information.
    Rods
  16. ___ are reponsible for colour vision.
    Cones
  17. Photoreceptors form synapses with ____ cells.
    Bipolar
  18. Bipolar neurones form synapses with ___ cells.
    Ganglion
  19. ___ cells are neurones whose axons travel through the optic nerves and carry visual information to the rest of the brain.
    Ganglion
  20. What are the two parts of photopigment molecules?
    Opsin and retinal
  21. Opsin is a protein, retinal is a ____.
    Lipid
  22. Axons of retinal ganglion cells bring information to the rest of the brain by ascending through the optic nerves to the ___ of the thalamus.
    Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
  23. The LGN contains ___ layers of neurones.
    6
  24. The inner two layers of the LGN are ____.
    Magnocellular
  25. The outer four layers of the LGN are ___.
    Parvocellular
  26. The LGN projects into the _____ cortex.
    Primary visual
  27. Optic nerves join together at the base of the brain to form the ____.
    Optic chiasm
  28. Axons from ganglion cells cross the optic chiasm and ascend to the LGN on the ___ side of the brain.
    Opposite
  29. What is the term for the portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in the firing rate of a particular neurone?
    Receptive field
  30. In the periphery of the retina, many receptors converge onto a _____.
    Single ganglion cell.
  31. In the fovea, there are approximately equal numbers of ganglion cells and ____
    Cones (receptors)
  32. Foveal vision is very ___ due to there being approximately equal numbers of ganglion cells and cones.
    Acute
  33. Ganglion cells normally fire at a relatively ___ rate.
    Low
  34. The ____ organisation of ganglion cells enhances our ability to detect outlines of objects, even when the contrast between the object and the background is low.
    Centre-surround
  35. Each ganglion cell receives information from ____.
    Photoreceptors
  36. The receptive field of most retinal ganglion cells consists of two concentric circles, with the cells becoming ___when light falls in one region and ___when it falls in the other.
    Excited, Inhibited
  37. ___ cells are excited by light in the centre.
    ON
  38. ___ cells are excited by light in the surround.
    OFF
  39. ___ cells detect dark against light.
    OFF
  40. ___ vision occurs as a result of information provided by three types of cones, each of which is senstive to light of a certain ___.
    Colour, Wavelength
  41. Absorption charactersitics of the cones are determined by the particular ___ that their photopigment contains.
    Opsin
  42. Area V1 is also known as the ___ cortex.
    Striate or Primary Visual
  43. Parts of area ___ contain a path of cells called blobs which are highly sensitive to colour.
    V1
  44. Neurones in area V1 blobs project to ____ of area V2.
    Thin stripes
  45. Neurones outside of the blobs in area V1 project to ___ and ___ stripes in area V2.
    Thick, Pale
  46. Neurones in the thin stripes of area V2 receive information concerning ___.
    Colour
  47. The ____ cortex divides into two pathways.
    Visual Association
  48. What are the two pathways which the visual association cortex divides into?
    Dorsal & Ventral Streams
  49. The dorsal stream begins in the ____ cortex.
    Striate
  50. The ventral stream begins in the ____ cortex
  51. The dorsal stream ends in the ___ cortex.
    Posterior Parietal
  52. The ventral stream ends in the ___ cortex.
    Inferior Temporal
  53. The ___ stream receives mostly magnocellular input.
    Dorsal
  54. The ___ stream receives equal input from magnocellular and parvocellular systems.
    Ventral
  55. The ___ stream is involved in perception of form.
    Ventral
  56. The ___ stream is involved in perception of spatial location.
    Dorsal
  57. The ___ stream recognises what an object is and what colour it has.
    Ventral
  58. The ___ stream recognises where an object is located and its speed and direction if it is moving.
    Dorsal
  59. The response of the ___ system is slow and prolonged, therefore it is able to detect fine details.
    Parvocellular
  60. Damage to area ___ disrupts colour constancy.
    V4
  61. What is the name of the dosorder which means 'vision without colour'?
    Cerebral Achromatopsia
  62. What is the inability to recognise objects by sight?
    Visial Agnosia
  63. Agnosia means failure to ___.
    Know
  64. What is the inability to recognise faces?
    Prosopagnosia
  65. What is the inability to perceive movement?
    Akinatopsia
  66. Akinatopsia is caused by damage to area ___.
    V5
  67. Area ___ is where the split into dorsal and ventral streams occurs.
    V1
  68. Damage to area V8 causes ____.
    Cerebral Achromatopsia
  69. Damage to the ___ stream can cause visual agnosia.
    Ventral
  70. ____ are bleached by bright light and are thus not very useful in daylight.
    Rods
  71. ___ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.
    Photopigments
  72. Most of the ganglion cell axons go to the ___.
    LGN
  73. The LGN is a nucleus of the ____ that is specialised fo visual perception.
    Thalamus
  74. What are the two categories of ganglion cells?
    Magnocellular and Parvocellular
  75. Parvocellular cells have smaller cell bodies and a small ____.
    Receptive field
  76. Magnocellular cells respond stronly to ___ stimuli and large overall patterns but not to details.
    Moving
  77. Area ___ responds to any kind of visual stimulus.
    V1
  78. The ventral stream is knownn as the ___ pathway.
    What
  79. The dorsal stream is known as the ___ pathway.
    Where
  80. The ventral stream is a visual pathway within the ___ cortex
    Temporal
  81. The dorsal stream is a visual pathway within the ___ cortex.
    Parietal
  82. We infer that visual processing is ___, at least up to the level of the LGN.
    Unconscious
  83. What is the ability to locate objects within an apparently blind visual field?
    Blindsight
  84. One explanation for blindsight after damage to the LGN is that the ___ which receives some visual information controls unconscious visually guided movements.
    Superior Colliculus
  85. The magnocellular system is specialised for perception of ___, movement and overall patterns.
    Depth
  86. The parvocellular system is specialised for perception of colour and ____.
    Fine details
  87. Scotoma is often described as ___.
    Visual noise
  88. What condition involves a patient being unable to acknowledge seen stimuli in the affected parts of their visual field.
    Cortical blindness
  89. The inability to recognise colour occurs as a result of damage to area ___.
    V4
  90. Photoreceptors transduce light energy into ___.
    Action potentials
  91. What ensures that there are two separate functions going on throughout visual processing?
    Double dissociation (Shallice 1988)
  92. How can we tell that certain areas of the brain deal with different aspects of processing?
    Study of brain damage patients
  93. How many types of cnes are there?
    Three
  94. The centre-surround receptive fields in the ganglion cells shows that colour opponent input ccurs at an ___ stage of visual processing.
    Early
  95. Which pathway deals with movement and luminance?
    Magnocellular
  96. The LGN projects onto the ___.
    Primary Visual Cortex
  97. The ___ cortex is classified into six regions.
    Occipital
  98. Within area V1, the blobs are involved in ___ and ___ perception.
    Colour, Form
  99. Within area V1, the interblobs are involved in ___ and ___.
    Form, Movement
  100. The three types of striples in area V2 show that there is now a ___ separation of function.
    Greater
  101. The thin stripes in area V2 deal with ___ information.
    Colour
  102. The thick stripes in area V2 deal with ___ information.
    Form
  103. The pale stripes in area V2 deal with ___ information.
    Motion
  104. ___% of the occipital cortex is devoted to areas V1 and V2.
    11
  105. What are the three types of cones?
    S,M,L
  106. Trichromats and dichromats have only two types of ___.
    Cones
  107. Damage to the optic nerve causes ___.
    Hemiatopsia
  108. ___ is a loss of/poor vision. This occurs when there is low level damage to the optic nerve, however we must be careful as the deficits are similar to those in higher areas.
    Hemiatopsia
  109. Scotoma or blind spot occurs as a result of damage to area ___.
    V1
  110. With scotoma, there is a perception of visual noise but not form or ___.
    Pattern
  111. There has been some ___for patients with damage to area V1, which indicates that some information may go to area V2 then feed back to V1.
    Recovery
  112. The fact that damage to area ___can cause a loss of dreams and memory for colour indicates that we must have to tap down to low level areas
    V4
  113. What is a change of light which illustrates the corner of an object?
    Contour
  114. The fact that there is little or no reduction in the firing range of area V5 when P channels are disrupted suggests that the __ pathway does not go to area V5.
    P
  115. Area V5 has only ___ input.
    Magnocellular
  116. Low level visual processing occurs from the ___ to ____.
    Retina, Area V1
  117. Middle level visual processing occurs from ____ to ___.
    Area V1, Area V5
  118. High level visual processing occurs in the ___ and ___ cortex areas.
    Parietal (Dorsal Stream), Temporal (Ventral Stream)
  119. Object recognition dosordes (Agnosias) are not ___ level as it s possible for only specific objects not to be recognised.
    Low
  120. What are the two types of agnosia?
    Apperceptive, Associative
  121. Which type of agnosia means that a person is unable to perform a percept of structure (may recognise but cannot name an object)?
    Associative
  122. Which type of agnosia means that a person is unable to perform a percept of an orject (cannot recognise, copy or match)?
    Apperceptive
  123. The fact that a person with associative agnosia can describe an object indicates that damage must occur close to areas involved in ___.
    Memory
  124. A person with visual spatial agnosia cannot find their way through familiar environments using landmarks, but have no problem identifying where an object is. This indicates that there is no ___ stream damage.
    Dorsal

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