a dark-colored group of noradreneric cell bodies located in the pons near the rostral end of the floor of the fourth ventricle; involved in arousal and vigilance
A period of desynchronized EEG activity during sleep, at which thime dreaming, rapid eye movements and muscular paralysis occur; also called paradoxical sleep.
A symptom of narcolepsy; complete paralysis that occurs during waking.
An electrical potential recorded from an electrode placed on or in a muscle.
smooth electrical activity of 8-12 Hz recorded fron the brain; generally associated with a state of relaxation.
a stimulus (usually the light of dawn) that resets the biological clock that is responsible for circadian rhythms.
A chemical produced when increased neural activity requires the breakdown of glycogen stored in astrocytes; may increase delta activity during the next night's slepp and thus enable the region to recover from its energy expenditure
EEG activity of 3.5-7.5 Hz that occurs intermittently during early stages of slow wave sleep and REM sleep.
fatal familial insomnia
A fatal inherited disorder characteized by progessive insomnia
A group of nuclei located in the reticulat formation of the medulla,pons , and midbrain, situated along the midline; contain serotonergic neurons.
drug dependency insomnia
an insomnia caused by the side effects of ever-increasing doses of sleeping medication
The increase frequency or intensity of a phenomenon after it has been temporarily suppressed; for example, the increase in REM sleep seen after a period of REM sleep deprivation.
A hormone secreted during the night by the pineal body; plays a role in circadian seasonal rhythms.
a symptom of narcolepsy; an irresistible urge to sleep during the day, after which the person awakes feeling refreshed.
medial pontine reticular formation (MPRF)
A region that contains neurons involved in the initiation of REM sleep; activated by acetylcholineric neurons of the peribrachial area.
A nucleus in the ventral posterior hypothalamus, just rostral to the mammillary bodies; contains histaminergic neurons involved in cortical activation and behavioral arousal.
a symptom of narcolepsy; paralysis occurring just before a person falls asleep.
A sleep disorder characterized by periods of irresistible sleep, attack of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations.
ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA)
a group of GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area whose activity suppresses alertness and behavioral arousal and promotes sleep.
Irregular electrical activity of 13-30 Hz recorded from the brain; generally associated with a state of arousal.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a nucleus situated atop the optic chiasm. It contains a biological clock that is resposible for organizing many of the body's circadian rhythms
REM sleep behavior disorder
A neurological disorder in which the person does not become paralyzed during REM sleep and thus acts out dreams
a peptide, also known as orexin, produced by neurons whose cell bodies are located in the hypothalamus; their destruction causes narcolepsy
basic rest-activity cycle
A 90-minute cycle (in humans) of waxing and waning alertness, controlled by a biological clock in the caudal brian stem; controls cycles of REM sleep and slow-wave sleep.
A symptom of narcolepsy; vivid dreams that occur just before a person falls asleep; accompanied by sleep paralysis.
A photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit information to the SCN, the thalamus, and the olivary pretectal nuclei.
Cessation of breathing while slepping
Bursts of phasic electrical activity originating in the pons, followed by activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex; a characteristic of REM sleep.
Regular, synchronous electrical activity of less that 4 Hz recorded from the brain; occurs during the deepest stages of slow wave sleep.
a Gland attached to the dorsal tectum; produces melatonin and plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms
non-REM sleep, characterized by synchronized EEG activity during its deeper stages
a nucleus in the medulla; involved in the muscular paralysis that accompanies REM sleep.
All stages of sleep except REM sleep.
An electrical potential from the eyes, recorder by means of electrodes placed on the skin around them; detect eye movements.
A daily rhthmical change in behaivor or physiological process.
region around the brachium conjunctivum, located in the dorsolateral pons; contains acetylchlinergic neurons involved in the initiation of REM sleep.