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2011-12-06 13:40:54
Pathogenic Fungi

Basic Characteristics of Fungi
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  1. Histoplasma capsulatum
    • True pathogen
    • dimorphic
    • endemic to the Ohio Valley
    • in moist soils containing bird and bat guano
    • grows in the cytoplasm of the macrophages
  2. Coccidioides immitis
    • True pathogen
    • found mainly in California
    • most virulent of the fungi
    • Osteomyelitius; coccidioimycosis
  3. Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • True pathogen
    • endemic to the U.S.
    • lung nodules are often mistaken for cancer
    • cutaneous form is common
  4. Subcutaneous mycosis
    • Oppurtunistic Pathogen that is becoming a True Pathogen
    • invade damaged tissue
    • invade within and just below the skin
    • can cause major destruction
  5. Cutaneous mycoses
    • Opportunistic Pathogen that is becoming True Pathogen
    • confined to the nonliving epidermal tissues
    • fungi are called dermatophytes (Ringworm)
    • found in humans, animals, and soil
    • enter abraded skin
    • worldwide
  6. Superficial mycoses
    • Opportunistic Pathogen that is becoming True Pathogen
    • outer epidermal surface
  7. Candida albicans
    • Opportunistic fungi
    • candidiasis
    • yeast
    • normal flora of the pharynx, large intestine, genetalia, or skin of 20% of the population
    • account for 70% of nosocomial fungal infections
    • Infection of the oral cavity is called thrush
    • Commonly known as a yeast infection in vaginal infections.
    • Candida in the blood can be a fatal systemic infection
  8. Crytococcus neoformans
    • Opportunistic fungi
    • yeast
    • occurs primarily in debilitated patients
    • associated with bird guano
    • sometimes seen in dairy products and in healthy human tonsils and skin
    • This organism usually gets into the respiratory tract and
    • is usually resolved rapidly. If it moves
    • to the bloodstream and has a strong affinity for the brain and meninges.
    • India ink prep of CSF is the initial screen for meningitis
    • or brain infection
  9. Pneumocystis carinii
    • Opportunistic fungi
    • causes pneumonia
    • most frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients
    • spread in droplet form and is normally held in check by phagocytes and macrophages
  10. Aspergillus
    • Opportunistic fungi
    • widely distributed in dust and air
    • serious threat to AIDS, leukemia, and organ
    • transplant patients
    • usually occurs in the lungs
    • systemic infection has a poor prognosis