APK Exam4 Immune

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bkheath
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APK Exam4 Immune
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2011-12-06 17:00:43
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APK Exam4 Immune
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APK Exam4 Immune
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  1. White blood cells
    Leukocytes
  2. Where are lymph nodes found? Lymph nodes, tonsils, (3)
    bone marrow, thymus, spleen
  3. 3 types granulocytes (have cytoplasmic granules that contain secretory products)
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  4. most common type of leukocytes are ___
    neutrophils
  5. 2 types agranulocytes
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
  6. WB cells which increase in # during infections (esp fight against bacterial) and secrete cytokines, which are involved in inflammation. Circulate in blood for 7-10 hrs, & stay in tissues for a few days
    Neutrophils
  7. WB cells which figh parasites, and secrete toxic enzymes from granules
    Eosinophils
  8. WB cells which contribute to allergic rxns; may fight large parasites
    Basophils
  9. WB cells which secrete cytokines, and migrate to tissues to become macrophages
    Monocytes
  10. WB cells which are responsible for a specific immune response, and are 99% of interstitial fluid cells. Consist of 3 types:
    • Lymphocytes
    • 1. B cells
    • 2. T cells
    • 3. Null cells
  11. WB cells which lyse virus-infected cells; involved in early immune response (before other cells ___ get to work); also protect against cancer; recognize chgs in receptor proteins on cell surface
    • Null cells
    • before T & B cells
  12. Most null cells are ____ cells
    natural killer (NK)
  13. Central lymphoid tissues which are the site of lymphocyte maturation (2). Which wb cells develop in each location?
    • Bone marrow (all wb cells besides T cells develop here)
    • Thymus (T cells develop here)
  14. All leukocytes (as well as all rb cells) develop from precursor cells called ___
    hematopoietic stem cells
  15. Peripheral lymphoid tissue traps microorganisms and foreign particles by ___
    exposing blood to leukocytes in high concentrations; works by "funneling" blood through a "mesh" network full of leukocytes
  16. Peyer's patches are located in:
    small intestine
  17. Main functions of each Peripheral Lymphoid Tissue
    Spleen & lymph nodes:
    Tonsils & adenoids:
    Appendix & Peyer's patches :
    • Spleen & lymph nodes: filter blood & lymph
    • Tonsils & adenoids: trap inhaled particles
    • Appendix & Peyer's patches: trap ingested particles
  18. Diff b/w specific & nonspecific defenses
    • Non: innate immunity; includes physical & internal barriers
    • Specific: specific against particular pathogen, acquired
  19. Nonspecific defenses include physical barriers (as well as internal defenses). State how each protects you.
    Skin:
    Sebum & other secretions:
    Mucous membranes:
    Mast cells:
    • Skin: physical barrier
    • Sebum: antimicrobial oil
    • Mucous membranes: mucus traps pathogens
    • Mast cells: in skin & mucosa which secrete histamine, etc
  20. Immune cells of skin & mucosa which secrete histamine and also brings other leukocytes to fight infection
    Mast cells
  21. Nonspecific defenses of internal defenses (vs physical defenses) include (3)
    • inflammation
    • NK cells
    • complement system
  22. Series of events which cause leukocytes coming to area & accumulation of fluid due to action of macrophages
    Inflammation
  23. ___ is immune response which causes the production of antibodies
    Antigen
  24. Explain the 4 features of specific immune response:
    Specificity
    Diversity
    Self-tolerance
    Memory
    • Specificity: an antigen causes antibodies to be made, which are specific to the antigen only
    • Diversity: B & T cells can recognize millions of antigens
    • Self-tolerance: protein receptors on cell mem allow recognition of self or not
    • Memory: due to exposure; as in vaccines
  25. Explain when the 2 types of memory take place: primary and secondary immune response
    • Primary: first exposure
    • Secondary: subsequent exposures
  26. The primary immune response takes ____ days to occur after exposure, which is when the symptoms of illness occur; is the first time meeting this pathogen
    10-17
  27. During the primary response, antigen-selected B & T cells proliferate and differentiate into effector cells: (2)
    • Plasma cells
    • Cytotoxic T cells
  28. The secondary immune response takes ___ days to occur after exposure to the antigen and results in a greater magnitude of response which is more prolonged
    2-7
  29. 2 types of specific immune responses & which wb cells are involved
    • Humoral: B cells
    • Cell-mediated: T cells
  30. Type of immunity which involves ___ cells and involves secretion of antibodies by plasma cells to defend against pathogens in body fluids
    • Humoral immunity
    • B cells
  31. Type of immunity which involves ___ cells and involves lysis of pathogen infected cells (done by ___ cells)
    • Cell-mediated
    • T cells
    • Cytotoxic T cells
  32. General diff b/w humoral (B cells) and cell-mediated (T cells) immunity
    • Humoral (B cells): antibodies
    • Cell-mediated (T cells): cell lysis
  33. How are immunoglobins made?
    When a B cell contacts an antigen or foreign molec, it becomes a plasma cell which secrete immunoglobins
  34. Antibodies which mark invaders for destruction
    Immunoglobulins
  35. What causes B cell proliferation and what two types of cell do the B cells become?
    Binding of an antigens to lymphocytes, which then either become a memory B cell, or a plasma cell (which secrete antibodies that bind to antigen to get rid of it)
  36. WB cell which secretes antibodies which bind to antigen to get rid of it
    Plasma cells (made from B cells)
  37. 4 methods of antigen disposal by antibodies
    • Neutralization
    • Agglutination
    • Opsonization
    • Complement activation
  38. Neutralization of pathogen is done by the antibody by:
    binding to it and blocking it's activity
  39. Agglutination gets rid of pathogen by:
    Clumping multiple pathogens together by antibodies
  40. Opsonization gets rid of pathogen by:
    phagocytes engulfing the pathogen-antibody complex, which is more efficient than engulfing the pathogen alone
  41. Complement activation gets rid of a pathogen by:
    antibodies binding to pathogen, creating a complement protein cascade which eventually lyse the pathogen cell
  42. What do T cells attack?
    Infected, mutant, or transplanted cells
  43. What are the 3 types of T cells, and generally what are
    their functions?
    • Cytotoxic T cells: puncture hole & lyse pathogen cell
    • Helper T cells: signal to B & T cells there's infection
    • Suppressor T cells: keep immune system in check
  44. secrete hole-puncturing molecs which lyse pathogen cell
    Cytotoxic T cells
  45. secrete cytokines which tell B & other T cells there's an infection
    Helper T cells
  46. secrete cytokines which suppress B & other T cells; keeps immune system in check
    Suppressor T cells
  47. What is antigen presentation?
    When a MHC molec goes inside the pathogen cell, binds to fragment in there (an antigen), and pushes it out onto the cell surface so that the receptors on a T cell recogize the antigen
  48. Which type of MHC to T cells recognize? What
    type do B cells recognize?
    • Cytotoxic T cells: MHC I
    • Helper T cells: MHC II
    • B cells: MHC II
  49. On what types of cells are Class I MHC and Class II MHC molecs found on their surfaces?
    • Class I MHC: all nucleated cells
    • Class II MHC: macrophages, activated B & T cells, thymus cells
  50. When MHC II-anitgen complex binds to helper T cell, the helper T cell secretes ____
    cytokines
  51. When MHC I-antigen complex binds to cytotoxic T cell, the cytotoxic T cell then ____
    destroys the virus-infected cell or cancer cell in which the MHC I-antigen complex is bound
  52. What does MHC have to do with knowing which cells are our own and which are foreign?
    The MHC molecs are unique to an individual person (HLA- human leukocyte antigen) and are unique to each type of tissue
  53. Universal blood donor:
    Universal blood recipient
    • donor: O
    • recipient: AB
  54. Blood types are due to ___ on surface of RBCs
    antigens
  55. A person with Type B blood has ___ antigens on RBC surface and will not produce antibodies to ___ antigen. Why?
    • B; B
    • they are recognized as self
  56. How are helper T cells activated?
    Binding of MHC II-antigen complex on macrophage or B cell to the T cell causes the macrophages or B cell to secrete cytokines (which causes maturation of helper T cells)
  57. Cause maturation of helper T cells
    cytokines
  58. What do helper T cells do?
    Differentiate into cytokines which act on other wb cells & cause their maturation
  59. What is the difference between active and
    passive immunity?
    • Active involves memory; body develops immunity over time
    • Passive does not involve memory, immunity stays as long as antibodies are present, such as when mother passes them to fetus

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