OCD/Mood disorders

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  1. criteria for OCD
    • recurrent, and persisten thoughts/images
    • associated behaviors compelled to perform
    • insight that it is irrational
    • distress, consumes 1+ hour/day
    • impairs functioning
  2. causes of OCD
    • thought-action fusion
    • tend to be be more depressed
    • have exceptionally high standards of conduct
  3. obsessions vs. compulsions
    obsessions - repetitive, unwelcome thoughts

    compulsions - repetitive, almost irresistable actions
  4. Major Depressive Episode
    • for (2) weeks, must have:
    • depressed mood or anhedonia, and (4):
    • appetite or body weight change
    • psychomotor agitation or retardation
    • feelings of worthlessness or guilt
    • thoughts of suicide or death
  5. manic episode
    • 1 week of elevated, expansive or irritable mood and 3+:
    • inflated self-esteem
    • excessively talkative
    • racing thoughts
    • less need for sleep
  6. mixed manic episode
    • 1 week duration; meets criteria for MDE and manic episode
    • Two types:
    • 1) cycle fast; high to low to high, etc.
    • 2) acting manic, but feels powerless and depressed abt it at the same time; self-aware they are not behaving normally
  7. Unipolar Mood Disorder

    Major Depressive Episode (single episode)
    • rare!
    • usually the first of many
  8. dsythymic disorder
    2+ years in a depressed mood; more days than not
  9. double depression
    dysthymic disorder overlaid with a MDE
  10. bereavement
    less than 2 months of grief after death of a loved one
  11. impacted grief reaction
    if loss of a loved one goes beyond an MDE and there is hallucination of loved one or suicidal ideation
  12. bipolar I disorder
    • criteria:
    • just a manic episode will suffice to diagnose. assumption is that if you have mania, there will always be depression

    manic or mixed manic episode
  13. bipolar II disorder
    hypomanic episode with MDE
  14. cyclothymic disorder
    • 2+ years alternating dysthymia and hypmania
    • more dysthymic than hypomanic
    • rapid cycling - up to 4 times per year
  15. biological vulnerabilities for mood disorders
    • concordance evidence: twin studies indicate concordance in monozygotic twins
    • causes: 40% attributed to genes, 60% attributed to environment
    • low levels of serotonin causes a dysregulation of other monamines (dopamine, norepinephrine)
    • 60% of non-shared environment (friends, activities, experiences)
  16. (2) cognitive theories for depression
    • 1. learned helplessness
    • 2. negative cognitive style (negative outlook)
  17. 1. learned helplessness
    2. negative cognitive style
    • 1. "i'm a failure"
    • 2. errors in logic, cognitive distortions, negative bias
  18. (theory for depression)
    exogenous depression
    endogenous depression
    • exogenous: external cause and effect (house burns down, become depressed), might have high vulnerabiliy that a small stressor triggers depression
    • endogenous: internal cause; not clear stressor
    • "kindling effect" - more one has an MDE, the risk of increasing the chance of having another MDE; initial episode is like kindling; brain seems to change and become more vulnerable after first MDE
  19. antidepressant medications
    • SSRI - increases serotonin in synapse
    • Tricyclics: MOAR-I's -serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine reuptake inhibitors; reserved for severe patients not responsive to other meds; deadly side effects
    • MAO-Is- can have deadly side effects (tyramine in foods react to cause stroke or heart attacks)
  20. mood stabilizers
    • lithium - very narrow window of therapeutic value; same amt. of value can also cause serious problems (i.e. seizures, kidney dysfunction,death)
    • anticonvulsants - reduces excitation; anti-seizure medication
  21. Electro-convulsive Shock Therapy (ECT)
    • if person is actively suicidal or severely depressed and medication is too slow
    • induces a seizure (overexcite neurons; kills cells)
    • minor amnesia
    • lifts patient out of suicidal depression
    • every other day for 3 weeks
  22. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
    • over-excites a brain area
    • coil on patient's head; run electricity, create a magnetic field; originally used to inactivate a brain area but is not used to activate a brain area
    • is currently approved to treat suicidal depression
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OCD/Mood disorders
2011-12-06 22:11:20
OCD Mood disorders

OCD/Mood disorders
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