A+P Exam 1

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A+P Exam 1
2011-12-07 17:14:28
anatomy dr ballard intro cells tissues bone tissue

intro to the human body, cellular level, tissue, integumentary, bone tissue
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  1. levels of structural organization of the human body
    chemical, molecular, cellular, tisssue, organ, organ system, organism
  2. abdominal region
    around belly button area
  3. abdominopelvic cavity
    • a subdivision of ventral body cavity
    • separated from the thoracic cavity by the muscular diaphram
    • separated from pelvis by the bony pelvis
  4. tip of back of shoulder seen posterior
    acromial region
  5. six important life processes of being alive
    metabolism, reproduction, responsiveness(irritability), movement, growth, differentiation,
  6. metabolism
    • sum of all chemical processes of the body
    • broken down into catabilism and anabolism
  7. catabolism
    breaking down processes that provide energy
  8. anabolism
    building up processes that require energy and raw materials to build and maintain the bodys structural and functional components
  9. anatomical position
    upright, face up, feet flat on floor, arms at sides, palms and eyes forward, mouth closed
  10. anatomy
    • to cut up/ dissect
    • the study of structures and the relationships between structures
  11. physiology
    • functions of body parts
    • physis-nature
  12. ability to detect and respond to changes in environment(inter/exter)
    • responsiveness/ excitability/ irritability
    • nervous and endocrine systems detect changes and muscles and glands respond to input for nerv/endo to counteract changes
  13. motion of the whole body, organs, tissues, or even organelles within cells
  14. growth
    • increase in size and complexity
    • -increa in # of cells or extracellular matrix between cells, pushing them farther apart
  15. differentiation
    develops from an unspecialized stage to more specialized one
  16. formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement, or production of a new individual
  17. forearm
    antebrachial region
  18. anterior(ventral)
    towards the front
  19. armpit
    axillary region
  20. upper arm
    brachial region
  21. Buccal region
    facial/ CHEEK
  22. calcaneal region
    the heel of foot
  23. wrist
    carpal region
  24. cephalic region
    cranial, head region
  25. cervical region
  26. coxal region
    anterior side of HIP
  27. CRURAL
    anter and post lower LEG or calf/shin
  28. cubital
    post and ant of elbow
  29. -plane
    • -immaginary flat surface that passes through body
    • -two demensional surface resulting from a cut
  30. major planes of the body
    sagital, frontal(coronal), transverse(horizontal/cross), oblique
  31. cuts the body into right and left sections
  32. divdes body into superior and inferior
  33. Two body cavities?
    dorsal and ventral
  34. dorsal body cavity
    contains cranial cavity and vertebral
  35. thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominopelvic
    subdivisions of the ventral body cavity
  36. mediastinum
    • middle of chest(thorax):
    • anterior
    • middle(pericardial)
    • posterior
  37. lies between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium. This cavity is filled with pericardial fluid
    pericardial cavity
  38. pleural cavities
    • in the ventral cavity in thoracic cavity
    • lungs
  39. a condition in which bodys internal environment remains within certain physiological limits
    • homeostasis
    • 1.optimum gasses/ions/nutrients/water
    • 2.optimum temp
    • 3. opt pressure
  40. extracellular fluid
    • fluid outside of cells
    • interstitial and plasma
  41. interstitial fluid
    • intercellular or tissue fluif fills the narrow spaces between the cells
    • the internal environment cuz services the intracellular fluid
    • constantly exchanging with plasma and provides optimum conditions
  42. intracellular fluid
    fluid within cells.2/3 body water of cytoplasm
  43. a cycle of events in which a status of a condition is monitored and information regarding the condition is fed back to a central control reigion
    Control center, receptor, effector
    Feedback system
  44. response of body reverses orginal stimulas
    output decreases input
    negative feedback
  45. response of body enhances oringinal stimulas, less frequent
    usually bad except for
    childbirth, blood clots
    output increases input
    pos feedback
  46. The region of the abdominopelvic cavity that is superior and lateral to the umbilical region is
    LEFT hypochondriac region
  47. the mediastinum separates
    one pleural cavity from another
  48. filtration
    materials move passively down a hydrostatic or mechanical pressure gradient
  49. contain enzymes that destroy material engulfed by phagocytes are
  50. an integral protein that binds to a specific ligand creating a cell response is a
  51. solutes move down a concentration gradient in
    facilitated diffusion
  52. simple squamous epithilium aids in
    filtration or diffusion
  53. hyaline cartilage is found in embryoskeleton, trachea, bronch tubes, nose, but not
    intervertebral discs
  54. Primary tissue types
    • muscle, nerve, connective, epithilial
    • not bone!
  55. much of the upper respiratory tract is lined with
    ciliated psuedostratified columnar epithilium
    • have parietal and visceral portions(layers)
    • line body cavities that dont open to exterior and cover external surfaces of the viscera
  57. tissue has many fine collagen fibers not visible and lacunae with chondrocytes
    Hyaline cartilage
  58. hypodermis
    mostly adipose cells that store energy in fat
  59. The role of keratinocytes is to
    accumulate melanin granules in their superficial regions forming a protective barrier for DNA
  60. a bone would be unable to repair itsself if it lacked
  61. the bony matrix is dissolved to release stored minerals
  62. basic functional unit of compact bone is
  63. merocrine(eccrine) glands are not altered by the secretory process
    mode of secretion of exocrine glands
  64. endothelium is a simp squamous lining
    blood vessels
  65. the dermis is composed of what kind of fibers? 2
    elastin and collagen
  66. sequence of development of bone forming cells
    • Osteoprogenitor cells
    • differentiate into osteoblasts, which then become osteocytes
  67. periosteum inner layer consists of
    osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  68. normal bone formtaion depend on diet intake of
    calcium, phosphate and Vit D
  69. the posterior aspect of the knee
    popliteal region
  70. mucous secreting cells found in many epithelia
    Goblet cells
  71. tissue forms the internal supporting framework of soft organs such as the spleen
  72. arrector pili
    used to raise and lower hair
  73. hormone is active form of Vit D that works in concert with pth to promote bone homeostasis
  74. calcium phosphate crystallizes in bone as mineral called
  75. Diference b/w receptors and pumps
    • Receptors are integral proteins that
    • bind specifically to some molecule (ligand)

    • Pumps are integral proteins that use ATP to actively move some molecule across the
    • cell membrane.
  76. what functional characteristic does the organic osteoid tissue impart to a bone?
  77. six functions of bone tissue?
    protection, support, movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, storage of engery
  78. two end bones of long bones together called an
    covered in articular caritlage
    sitting over top of shaft
  79. metaphysis
    • of long bone where region of mature bones where diaphysis meets epiphysis
    • how long bones form
  80. covers the epiphysis at a joint
    thin layer of hyaline cartliage
    withstand pressure
    articular cartilage
  81. epiphyseal plate
    • in growing bone, a plate formed of hyaline cartilage
    • plate grows giving length to bone
    • bone growth exceeds cartilage growth at puberty and plate is slowly lost
  82. contains either red or yellow marrow within the bone
    medullary cavity
  83. double layered dense irregular CT surrounding bone except where articular cart is
    has two layers?
    functions in bone growth, repair, nutrition and attachment for muscles.
    where tendons attach
    • Periosteum
    • outer fibrous
    • inner osteogenic
  84. layer of bone composed of dense ireg and collagen tissue containing blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves that pass into the bone
    fibrous periosteum
  85. inner layer contains elastic fibers and osteoprogenitor cells that give rise to osteoblasts when stimulated
    osteogenic periosteum
  86. Endosteum
    single layer of osteoprogenitor cells lining the medullary cavity
  87. consists of lamellae of bone matrix arranged in latticework called trabeculae. thin spaces between trabecs are part of medullary cavity
    in areas of increased mechanical stress
    spongy bone(cancellous)
  88. contains few spaces, layers of bone matrix packed tightly forming osteons
    forms external layer of all bones providing protection support against weight
    compact bone(dense)
  89. Osteoprogenitor cells
    • immature quiescent line bone surface
    • when stimulated, enter mitosis and give rise to osteoblasts
  90. lose mitotic ability and produce new bone matrix through osteogenesis
    make ground substance that secrete bone specific organic molecules
  91. mature bones cells, embedded in bone matrix, nonmitotic, nonboneforming- role poorly understood- strain sensors?
    reach out to communicate withother bone cells?
  92. Osteoclasts
    • scattered on endosteal surfaces
    • function in bone resorption- destruction of bone matrix
    • osteolysis
    • surround selves in own bone matrix and slow down to become osteocytes
  93. producing new bone matrix, ossification
  94. main components of bone matrix
    collagen , ground substance, and TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE**
  95. ossification(mineralization/calcification)
    • mineral salts in bone matrix are deposited into the framework of groundsubstance and collagen fibers, they crystallize and the tissue hardens or ossifies.
    • mineral salts on collagen gives bones hardness- remove salts and bone is flexable cuz of collagen resists= tensile strength
    • depositing inorganics into organics resulting in calcification
  96. perforating(Volkmans canals)
    minute passageway when blood vessels and nerves from periosteum penetrate into compact bone
  97. circular channel running longtitutindal in center of osteon of mature compact bone. contain blood, lymphatic vessels and nerves
    Haversion canal
  98. rings of calcified bone matrix surrounding haversion canals of compact bone
  99. lacunae
    • little lake
    • in matrix wherein resides an osteocyte located between lamellae
  100. canniculus
    • smalll channel or canal connecting two lacunae in compact bone
    • each contains a cellular process of an osteocyte
  101. osteon
    • Haversion system is basic unit of structure in adult compact bone
    • central canal with lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi
  102. interstitial lamellae
    frags of older compact bone found between newer osteons, been partially destroyed during bone replacement
  103. to suck up, break down and assimulate something previously differentiated
  104. changes the way bone resists stress, removes worn or injured bone, provides a resevoir for body calcium(calcium homestasis)
    balance betwenn osteogenesis and osteolysis
    bone remodeling
  105. regulators of bone calcium regulation
    PTH, calcitonin and VITAMIN D
  106. effectors of PTH
    incre bone resoption, incre resorption of CA by the gut(with vD), and increa ca reabsorption by the kidneys
  107. calcitonin causes
    • stops osteolysis,stimulates osteoblasts to create new bone to be calcified
    • tells kidneys to stop reabsorbing ca, allwing excess ca to pee out
  108. sutural bones are
    sesamoid bones are
    • trapped in b.w bones
    • developes in tendons(patella)
  109. hydroxyapatite
    inorganic calcium containing mineral that works with other ions to aid in ossification
  110. Intramembranous ossification
    • flat bones of skull, clavicle, calvarian
    • all bone must come from preexisting CT
    • embryo lay down CT and osteoblasts make peieces of bone
  111. Endochondral ossification
    • from within cartilage
    • start with cartilage models
    • cartliage not converted to bone, is destroyed and bones takes its place
    • sex hormoones cause epiphyseal plates to go away and we strong growing
  112. Calcitriol
    VITAMIN D, works with PTH to break bone and release CA