Bio Cancer

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  1. Control of the Cell Cycle
    Some genes code for proteins that control movement through the cell cycle

    Mutations to these genes may result in un =restrained cell proliferation (tumor

    Tumor cells continuously divide if nurtured
  2. Types of Cancer (Neoplasm)
    • Beninn
    • Spherical and well encapsulated

    Slow growing

    Unlikely to Spread

    Still can be dangerous

    Ends in -oma

    • Malignant
    • Irregularly shaped and not well encapsulated

    Fast growing

    Likely to spread (metatasize)

    Malignant tumor is Cancer
  3. Classification of Cancer
    Cancers classified based o site of origin

    - Caricoma: epithelial tissue

    - Sarcoma: connective/muscle/nervous tissue

    - Leukemia/Lymphoma: blood cells
  4. Causes of Cancer

    • Carcinogen: agent thought to cause cancer
    • - Mutagen: agent that mutantes DNA
    • Radiation: x-rays, radon, gamma rays, nuclear
    • Chemical: diet, smoking
    • Viruses: HPV, H. Pylori, hepatitis
    • All muturgens are caricinogens, but not all carcinogenes are mutagens

    • - Nonmutagenic: may cause cancer, but not through direct mutation (alcohol)
  5. Cyclin- dependent kinases (Cdks)
    Primary mechanism of cell cycle control

    • Activated by Cyclins
    • Cdks partner with different cyclins at different points in the cell cycle to promote cell division

    • Cdk itself is also controlled by phosphorylation
    • - Pi at one site activates Cdk, & at another site deactivates

    • Cdk- cyclin complex
    • - Also called mitosis- promoting factor (MPF)
  6. Growth factors

    PDGF one of the first growth factors identified

    PDGF receptor is an RTK that initiates a MAP kinase cascade to signal cell division

    Growth factors can overide cellular controls that otherwise inhibt cell division
  7. Cancer
    Unrestrained, uncontrolled growth of cells that have the ability to metastasize

    Failure of cell cycle control

    Two kinds of genes can distrup the cell cycle when they are mutated

    • 1. Tumor- supressor genes
    • 2. Proto- Oncogenes
  8. Proto- oncogenes
    Normal genes involved in signal transduction pathway to signal cell division.

    • Oncogene: mutated proto- oncogene that can cause cancer
    • - Some encode receptors for growth factors
    • if receptor is mutated "on", cell no longer needs growth factors
    • Some encode signal transduction proteins

    Only one copy of a proto-oncogene needed
  9. Tumor- suppressor genes
    Genes that stop cell division

    Prevent Cdk/cyclin binding

    • Oncogenes "step on the gas"
    • Only one copy of a proto-oncogene needed
  10. Tumor-suppressor genes
    Genes that stop cell division

    Prevent Cdk/ cyclin binding

    • Oncogenes "step on the gas"
    • Only one copy of oncogene needed
    • Tumor supressors "apply the breaks"
    • Both coppies of tumor suppressor need mutation
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Bio Cancer
2011-12-06 22:18:25

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