ASL Structure Final

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  1. What is temporal aspect?
    shows how a verb is done in reference to time
  2. What is the "aspect" part of temporal aspect?
    info contained in a predicate that tells us how the action of the predicate is done
  3. Inflection:
    morpheme that adds grammatical information to a word or sign without changing the meaning
  4. Can all verbs take temporal aspect?
    not all
  5. Can all verbs that take temporal aspect take all of them?
    not all
  6. Signs that are derivational:
    • compounds
    • noun-verb pairs
    • depicting verbs
  7. Signs that are inflectional:
    • temporal aspect
    • indicating verbs
    • depicting verbs
  8. Where is the time put in an ASL sentence and why?
    put at the beginning to mark tense of verbs in sentence
  9. Habitual time:
    shows that one does something on a regular basis or repeats something
  10. Open lexical categories:
    • nouns
    • verbs
    • adverbs
    • adjectives
  11. Nouns...
    • no bound morphemes to pluralize
    • few can be pluralized by reduplication
    • modified with adjectives, too
  12. Adjectives...
    • describe nouns
    • can take inflections
    • adjectival predicate: adjective follows a noun as a verb
    • *before noun= adjective
    • after noun= predicate
  13. Adverbs...
    • signs modified with non-manuals and inflection
    • can mark time
  14. Closed lexical categories:
    • Pronoun
    • Modal Verbs
    • Preposition
    • Conjunction
  15. Pronoun...
    • represent person already identified
    • need to know who's in reference to understand it
    • ASL uses first and non-first person
    • ASL doesn't show distinctions in object or subject or in gender
    • ASL and English indicate plurals
  16. Modal verbs...
    • "helping verbs"
    • express idea of necessity or possibility
    • ex: will, must, should
    • modal is followed by main verb, sometimes represented after verb
    • signing intensity and non-manuals can help change meaning
  17. Preposition...
    • show relationship between nouns and predicates or pronouns
    • ex: in, under, on, above
    • ASL uses indicating and depicting verbs and then an index finger point meaning "at"
    • ASL has some of these words, but they typically incorporate more information that English
  18. Conjunction...
    • join words or phrases in the same category
  19. How does a change in word order change the sentence?
    it changes the meaning.
  20. Why is context important?
    • important to know the whos, whats, whens, etc.
    • sentence can have more than one meaning
  21. Types of variation:
    • regional
    • social
    • ethnic
    • gender
    • age
  22. Regional variation:
    language changes based on where you are in the country, even though it's the same language
  23. Why is there variation?
    there are different ways to say the same thing
  24. Initialization:
    • putting the first letter of the English word (or more letters) in the sign
    • results in SEE signing
    • now not socially accepted
  25. What is another name for a classifier predicate?
    depicting verb
  26. Lexicalized classifier predicate:
    • take a depicting verb and transform it into a different sign
    • (depends on orientation, location, and movement)
  27. Perceived motion:
    • the hand(s) move to show a surface or thing that appears to be moving even though it might not be
    • ex: looking out the window of moving car and seeing the road go by
  28. Singer's perspective:
    showing what something looked like tot he signer; usually signed a little higher than normal
  29. How to add inflection on a sign?
    • change how the sign is signed slightly without changing the meaning
    • add non-manual
  30. How are adverbs made in ASL?
  31. 3 things that Classifier Predicates show:
    • 1) where something is in 3D space (contact root)
    • 2) how something is moving in 3D space (process)
    • 3) size and shape in 3D space (stative descriptive)
  32. Articulatory features:
    • Handshape
    • Orientation
    • Location
    • Movement
    • *Non-manual
  33. Intransitive verb:
    • doesn't take an object
    • ex: She plays a lot
  34. Transitive verb:
    • allows an object
    • ex: She plays soccer a lot
  35. Locative verbs:
    • Verbs that show location and direction
    • ex: THROW, HURT
  36. Negation sentence:
    • shaking head
    • lowered brow
    • squint eyes
  37. Command sentence:
    • usually don't sign subject
    • furrowed brow
    • exaggerated signing
  38. Topicalization:
    • object of sentence is put at the beginning
    • raised eyebrows and head tilt
    • sometimes short pause after object is stated
  39. Conditional sentence
    • If-then
    • If is ALWAYS at beginning (brows up, lean to side, pause at end
    • Then comes after (non-manuals depend on what is signed
    • *during If part, the sign IF or #IF can be used, but it's not required
  40. Subject-Object verbs
    give information about the subject and/or object using location
  41. Where are the first and second locations typically for Subject-Object verbs?
    • First: subject
    • Second: object
  42. Indicating Verb
    • verbs that move towards specific people or objects to incorporate additional information about the subject and/or object of the sentence
  43. Reciprocal verbs
    • add information by showing reciprocating action
  44. Major Morphological processes:
    • Affixation
    • Compounding
    • Reduplication
  45. Reduplication:
    signing the sign again to give it more meaning
  46. Affixation:
    adding more stuff onto a word (suffix, prefix, etc.) to give it more meaning
  47. Compounding:
    combining two words to form new word with a new meaning
  48. Derivational morphology:
    • making new words for the language using already existing ones
    • ex: noun-verb pairs
  49. Predicate:
    say something about the subject of the sentence; ASL doesn't require a verb where English does.
  50. Yes-No question...
    • raised eyebrows
    • eyes widened
    • head + body tilt forward
    • sometimes last sign held
    • sometimes shoulders raised
  51. Wh- question...
    • eyebrows down
    • eyes squint
    • head tilts
    • body may lean forward
    • shoulders might be raised
  52. Rhetorical questions...
    • most use Wh word, Wh non-manuals with it
    • OR
    • raised eyebrows
    • slight shake or tilt of head
  53. Labels for temporal aspect in verbs:
    • -IN-A-HURRY
  54. Temporal aspect: -CONTINUALLY
    small forward circles with entire sign
  55. Temporal aspect: -REGULARLY
    small forwards and backwards movement
  56. Temporal aspect: -FOR-PROLONGED-PERIOD
    large forward circles with entire sign
  57. Temporal aspect: -OVER-AND-OVER-AGAIN
    lunge forward, down-and-backwards arc towards body, repeat
  58. Temporal aspect: -IN-A-HURRY
    increased speed forwards-and-backwards movement with head doing same movement
    • first part: verb is made and held, eyes squinted, lips parted and tense
    • second part: mouth drops, eyes relax, verb is lurched forward and held
Card Set
ASL Structure Final
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