ASL Structure Final
Card Set Information
ASL Structure Final
ASL structure linguistics
What is temporal aspect?
shows how a verb is done in reference to time
What is the "aspect" part of temporal aspect?
info contained in a predicate that tells us how the action of the predicate is done
morpheme that adds grammatical information to a word or sign without changing the meaning
Can all verbs take temporal aspect?
Can all verbs that take temporal aspect take all of them?
Signs that are derivational:
Signs that are inflectional:
Where is the time put in an ASL sentence and why?
put at the beginning to mark tense of verbs in sentence
shows that one does something on a regular basis or repeats something
Open lexical categories:
no bound morphemes to pluralize
few can be pluralized by reduplication
modified with adjectives, too
can take inflections
: adjective follows a noun as a verb
*before noun= adjective
after noun= predicate
signs modified with non-manuals and inflection
can mark time
Closed lexical categories:
represent person already identified
need to know who's in reference to understand it
ASL uses first and non-first person
ASL doesn't show distinctions in object or subject or in gender
ASL and English indicate plurals
express idea of necessity or possibility
: will, must, should
modal is followed by main verb, sometimes represented after verb
signing intensity and non-manuals can help change meaning
show relationship between nouns and predicates or pronouns
: in, under, on, above
ASL uses indicating and depicting verbs and then an index finger point meaning "at"
ASL has some of these words, but they typically incorporate more information that English
join words or phrases in the same category
: BUT, UNDERSTAND, #OR, PLUS
How does a change in word order change the sentence?
it changes the meaning.
Why is context important?
important to know the whos, whats, whens, etc.
sentence can have more than one meaning
Types of variation:
language changes based on where you are in the country, even though it's the same language
Why is there variation?
there are different ways to say the same thing
putting the first letter of the English word (or more letters) in the sign
results in SEE signing
now not socially accepted
What is another name for a classifier predicate?
Lexicalized classifier predicate:
take a depicting verb and transform it into a different sign
(depends on orientation, location, and movement)
the hand(s) move to show a surface or thing that appears to be moving even though it might not be
: looking out the window of moving car and seeing the road go by
showing what something looked like tot he signer; usually signed a little higher than normal
How to add inflection on a sign?
change how the sign is signed slightly without changing the meaning
How are adverbs made in ASL?
3 things that Classifier Predicates show:
1) where something is in 3D space (contact root)
2) how something is moving in 3D space (process)
3) size and shape in 3D space (stative descriptive)
doesn't take an object
: She plays a lot
allows an object
: She plays soccer a lot
Verbs that show location and direction
: THROW, HURT
usually don't sign subject
object of sentence is put at the beginning
raised eyebrows and head tilt
sometimes short pause after object is stated
If is ALWAYS at beginning (brows up, lean to side, pause at end
Then comes after (non-manuals depend on what is signed
*during If part, the sign IF or #IF can be used, but it's not required
give information about the subject and/or object using location
Where are the first and second locations typically for Subject-Object verbs?
verbs that move towards specific people or objects to incorporate additional information about the subject and/or object of the sentence
: SHOW, GIVE, INFORM, TELL, SEND
add information by showing reciprocating action
: LOOK-AT-EACH-OTHER, UNDERSTAND-EACH-OTHER
Major Morphological processes:
signing the sign again to give it more meaning
adding more stuff onto a word (suffix, prefix, etc.) to give it more meaning
combining two words to form new word with a new meaning
making new words for the language using already existing ones
: noun-verb pairs
say something about the subject of the sentence; ASL doesn't require a verb where English does.
head + body tilt forward
sometimes last sign held
sometimes shoulders raised
body may lean forward
shoulders might be raised
most use Wh word, Wh non-manuals with it
slight shake or tilt of head
Labels for temporal aspect in verbs:
Temporal aspect: -CONTINUALLY
small forward circles with entire sign
Temporal aspect: -REGULARLY
small forwards and backwards movement
Temporal aspect: -FOR-PROLONGED-PERIOD
large forward circles with entire sign
Temporal aspect: -OVER-AND-OVER-AGAIN
lunge forward, down-and-backwards arc towards body, repeat
Temporal aspect: -IN-A-HURRY
increased speed forwards-and-backwards movement with head doing same movement
Temporal aspect: -PERFORM-UNDER-PRESSURE-THEN-CONCLUDE
: verb is made and held, eyes squinted, lips parted and tense
: mouth drops, eyes relax, verb is lurched forward and held