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What is temporal aspect?
shows how a verb is done in reference to time
What is the "aspect" part of temporal aspect?
info contained in a predicate that tells us how the action of the predicate is done
morpheme that adds grammatical information to a word or sign without changing the meaning
Can all verbs take temporal aspect?
Can all verbs that take temporal aspect take all of them?
Signs that are derivational:
- noun-verb pairs
- depicting verbs
Signs that are inflectional:
- temporal aspect
- indicating verbs
- depicting verbs
Where is the time put in an ASL sentence and why?
put at the beginning to mark tense of verbs in sentence
shows that one does something on a regular basis or repeats something
Open lexical categories:
- no bound morphemes to pluralize
- few can be pluralized by reduplication
- modified with adjectives, too
- describe nouns
- can take inflections
- adjectival predicate: adjective follows a noun as a verb
- *before noun= adjective
- after noun= predicate
- signs modified with non-manuals and inflection
- can mark time
Closed lexical categories:
- Modal Verbs
- represent person already identified
- need to know who's in reference to understand it
- ASL uses first and non-first person
- ASL doesn't show distinctions in object or subject or in gender
- ASL and English indicate plurals
- "helping verbs"
- express idea of necessity or possibility
- ex: will, must, should
- modal is followed by main verb, sometimes represented after verb
- signing intensity and non-manuals can help change meaning
- show relationship between nouns and predicates or pronouns
- ex: in, under, on, above
- ASL uses indicating and depicting verbs and then an index finger point meaning "at"
- ASL has some of these words, but they typically incorporate more information that English
- join words or phrases in the same category
- in ASL: BUT, UNDERSTAND, #OR, PLUS
How does a change in word order change the sentence?
it changes the meaning.
Why is context important?
- important to know the whos, whats, whens, etc.
- sentence can have more than one meaning
Types of variation:
language changes based on where you are in the country, even though it's the same language
Why is there variation?
there are different ways to say the same thing
- putting the first letter of the English word (or more letters) in the sign
- results in SEE signing
- now not socially accepted
What is another name for a classifier predicate?
Lexicalized classifier predicate:
- take a depicting verb and transform it into a different sign
- (depends on orientation, location, and movement)
- the hand(s) move to show a surface or thing that appears to be moving even though it might not be
- ex: looking out the window of moving car and seeing the road go by
showing what something looked like tot he signer; usually signed a little higher than normal
How to add inflection on a sign?
- change how the sign is signed slightly without changing the meaning
- add non-manual
How are adverbs made in ASL?
3 things that Classifier Predicates show:
- 1) where something is in 3D space (contact root)
- 2) how something is moving in 3D space (process)
- 3) size and shape in 3D space (stative descriptive)
- doesn't take an object
- ex: She plays a lot
- allows an object
- ex: She plays soccer a lot
- Verbs that show location and direction
- ex: THROW, HURT
- shaking head
- lowered brow
- squint eyes
- usually don't sign subject
- furrowed brow
- exaggerated signing
- object of sentence is put at the beginning
- raised eyebrows and head tilt
- sometimes short pause after object is stated
- If is ALWAYS at beginning (brows up, lean to side, pause at end
- Then comes after (non-manuals depend on what is signed
- *during If part, the sign IF or #IF can be used, but it's not required
give information about the subject and/or object using location
Where are the first and second locations typically for Subject-Object verbs?
- First: subject
- Second: object
- verbs that move towards specific people or objects to incorporate additional information about the subject and/or object of the sentence
- ex: SHOW, GIVE, INFORM, TELL, SEND
- add information by showing reciprocating action
- ex: LOOK-AT-EACH-OTHER, UNDERSTAND-EACH-OTHER
Major Morphological processes:
signing the sign again to give it more meaning
adding more stuff onto a word (suffix, prefix, etc.) to give it more meaning
combining two words to form new word with a new meaning
- making new words for the language using already existing ones
- ex: noun-verb pairs
say something about the subject of the sentence; ASL doesn't require a verb where English does.
- raised eyebrows
- eyes widened
- head + body tilt forward
- sometimes last sign held
- sometimes shoulders raised
- eyebrows down
- eyes squint
- head tilts
- body may lean forward
- shoulders might be raised
- most use Wh word, Wh non-manuals with it
- raised eyebrows
- slight shake or tilt of head
Labels for temporal aspect in verbs:
Temporal aspect: -CONTINUALLY
small forward circles with entire sign
Temporal aspect: -REGULARLY
small forwards and backwards movement
Temporal aspect: -FOR-PROLONGED-PERIOD
large forward circles with entire sign
Temporal aspect: -OVER-AND-OVER-AGAIN
lunge forward, down-and-backwards arc towards body, repeat
Temporal aspect: -IN-A-HURRY
increased speed forwards-and-backwards movement with head doing same movement
Temporal aspect: -PERFORM-UNDER-PRESSURE-THEN-CONCLUDE
- first part: verb is made and held, eyes squinted, lips parted and tense
- second part: mouth drops, eyes relax, verb is lurched forward and held