Card Set Information
The regulation of acid-base is essential for the management of:
the physiolodical mechanism that keep the H+ concentration in rage to life.
H+ concentration is expressed as?
Normal or neutral human physiological pH is?
A pH below 7.35 is described as:
A pH above 7.45 is described as:
A pH of 7.35-7.45 equals the H+ concentration of:
This is the negative log of H+
as pH increases, the H+ concentration _______.
as pH decreases, the H+ concentration _______.
A relatively large change in H+ produces what change in pH
a small change.
A pH change of 0.3 units equals a _____ change in H+.
A pH change od 1 unit equals a _____ change in H+
H+ arises from either ______ or _____.
volatile acids or fixed acids
These are in the blood, arise from and are in equilibrium with its gaseous component.
Is the only nolatile acid in the body with physiological significance and it is in equilibrium with dissolved CO2.
Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
The gaseous component of H2CO3 is eliminated through?
The normal aerobic metabolism
13000mmol/L per day of CO2
HCO3 + H+ -> H2CO3 -> H2O and CO2
in ventilation carbonic acid is ______ while it is produced.
In ventilation deoxygenated Hb (HHB) acts as a buffer and combines w/ the H+ preventing significant change in pH. This is called?
Non-volatile acids that do not originate from a gaseous component and are not eliminated by the lungs.
Some examples of fixed acids.
Sulfuric, phosphoric, and lactic acids
must be bufered by bases in the body or eliminated in urine by the kidneys. produced much less than volatile acids.
how much fixed acid is produced each day?
50-70mEq per day
Certain disease increase fixed acid production. How dose the resp. system compensate for it?
Ionizes almost completely in an aqeous solution.
Stron Acids and Bases
A Strong acid?
Nearly _____ of HCl molec. dissociates.
At equilibrium, the concentration of HCl is _______, compaired with either [H+} or [Cl-].
ionizes only to a small extent.
weak acids and bases
Example of weak acid.
at equilibrium the concentration of H2CO3 is ______ than HCO3- or H+.
is the ionization or dissociation constant.
A substance that minimizes changes in pH when an acid or base is added.
What are the two classifications of Blood Buffers?
Bicarbonate buffer and nonbicarbonate.
Consists of cabonic acid (H2CO3) and its conjugate base,(HCO3-), plasma, and erythrocyte
Consists of hemoglobin, phosphates ( organic and inorganic), plasma proteins.
is the sum of bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate bases measure in mmol/L of blood.
the blood buffer base.
Bicarbonate buffer is what kind of system?
Nonbicarbonate buffer is what kind on system?
One of its components can be exhaled in its gaseous form. buffering activity can continually go without being slowed or stopped. Buffer is replaced as it is used.
Open buffer system
All the components of acid base reactions remain in the system.
Closed Buffer system
These buffers have the greatest buffering capacity.
This equation expresses the biologic acid-base relationship by looking at one specific component of the system, namely the carbonic acid (H2CO3) to bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) relationship.
What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?
pH= 6.1 + log( [HCO3]/[PCO2 x 0.03 or H2CO3])
Measure the pH and PaCO2 and caculate HCO3- using the HH equation.
Blood gas analyzers
Normal HCO3- is?
Normal PaCO2 is?