ventilation Part 2.txt

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ventilation Part 2.txt
2011-12-06 18:10:31
RESP 130

RESP 130
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  1. Normal chest wall compliance is;
  2. The chest wall expands, whereas the lung wants to.
  3. At resting level, the forces of the chest wall and lungs?
  4. What determines the resting lung vol. or FRC?
    The balace of the forces in the chest wall.
  5. These are responcible for the subatmospheric pressure in the intrapleural space.
    Opposing forces between the chest wall and lungs
  6. Inhalation occurs when energy from the resp. muscles overcomes the _______.
    Contractile force of the lungs.
  7. The chest wall reaches its natural resting level at what of the VC?
  8. is due to passive deflation, stored energy from the stretched lung
  9. Exhaling below the resting level requires?
    more muscular effort.
  10. Formula for total compliance
    1/CLT = 1/CL + 1/CT
  11. Compliance of thorax is?
  12. CL=
    compliance of Lung
  13. CT=
    compliance of thorac
  14. CLT=
    compliance of lung and thorac
  15. Compliance of Lung and thorac together is?
    0.1 L/cmH2O
  16. Fofrmula for compliance
    Delta V/Delta P
  17. CLT is less that either individual component due to?
    Their opposing forces
  18. CLT of the respiratpry system can be altered by disorders affecting?
    Compliance of the lung, chest wall, or both
  19. Frictional resistance is unrelated to?
    elastic properties of the lungs and thorac
  20. frictional opposition occurs when there is?
    air movement
  21. 2 components of frictional opposition
    Tissue viscous and airway resistance
  22. it is impediance of motion caused by displacement of tissues during ventilation
    Tissue Viscous Resistance
  23. Tissue Viscous resistance is due to the displacement of these tissues.
    Lungs, rib cage, diaphragm, and abdominal organs.
  24. Tissue viscous Resistance accounts for only __ of the total resistance to lung infalation
  25. Obesity, fibrosis, and ascites can alter what?
    Tissues viscous resistance
  26. Resistance due to gas flow through the airways.
    Airway resistance
  27. Airway resistacne accounts for about ___ of the frictional resistacne to ventilation
  28. The formula for airway resistacne.
    Raw = delta P/ V
  29. In the formula for Airwya resistance delta P stands for?
    transrespiratory pressure
  30. Transrespiratory pressure formula
  31. Units for driving pressure
  32. Units for Flow
  33. Units for airway resistance
  34. Airway resistance in healthy adults range.
    0.5-2.5 cm H2O/L/sec
  35. Flow is measured with?
  36. Alveolar pressures are measured with?
    a Body plethysmograph
  37. Gas moves in discrete layers (streamlines). The layers near the center of an airway move faster than those close to the tube wall.
    Laminar flow
  38. erratic flow that is highly influenced by the gas density, flow no longer has a pattern of concentric layers
    turbulent flow
  39. it defines laminar flow through a smooth, unbranched tube of a fixed dimension
    Poiseuille's Law
  40. New Poiseulle's Law formula
    Delta P = v / r^4
  41. what is needed to maintain ventilation in the presence of narrowing airways?
    large increases in driving pressure
  42. Small changhes in bronchial caliber can markedly change what?
    gas flow through an airway
  43. A change in the caliber of an airway by a factor of 2 causes a?
    16th fold change in resistance
  44. Approx. ____ of the resistance to gas flow occurs in the nose, mouth, and large airways.
  45. 20% of totyal resistance to flow is due to airways smaller than what?
    2mm in diameter.
  46. The higher the lung volume, the greater th increase in airway diameter. Therefore what happens?
    airway resistance will decrease
  47. As lung vol. decreases, airway diameters decrease and therefore airway resistance?
  48. Large airways denpend mainly on _____ support to keep open
  49. Smaller airways lack cartilage and the depend on support provided by?
    surrounding lung parenchyma
  50. The difference between the pleural pressure and the pressure inside the airway.
  51. Transmural pressure gradient helps keep________?
    the airways open
  52. During quiet breathing the pleural pressure and transmural pressure are equal to_____
    -5 to-10 cm H2O
  53. How can you reverse the transmural pressure gradient, making it positive?
    Forced exhalation
  54. If forced exhalation exceeds the supporting provided by the lung parenchyma what could happen?
    the small airways may collapse.
  55. At this point the transmural pressure drop finally reaches a point where airway pressure and pleural pressure are the same.
    equal pressure point (EPP)
  56. After reaching EPP what can happen?
    the airway can collapse
  57. greater expiratory effort only increases pleural pressure, further restricting?
  58. is the sum of Ppl + lung elastic recoil pressure
    Alveolar pressure
  59. In healthy lungs, dynamic compression occurs only at lung vol. well below ______
    The resting epiratory level.
  60. Helps to keep the airways open.
    Lung parenchyma
  61. In diseases such as pulmonary emphysema, the elastic tissue has been destroyed. This causes:
    Inceased compliance of the lung, elastic recoil disease, lung volumes can increase w/ air trapping, expiratory flow is limited by airway collapse during exhalation.
  62. Requires energy to overcome the elastic and frvtional forces opposing inflation. Done by the respiratory muscles
    work of breathing
  63. is noted by measureing the physical parameters of force and distance.
    Mechanical work
  64. is assessed by measuring the oxygen cost of breathing
    Metabolic work
  65. In normal ventilation the work is done during?
    the inspiratory phase
  66. Forces exhalation will do what?
    Increase the work of breathing
  67. Work =
    Force X Distance
  68. P x V =
    Force X Distance
  69. Work of breathing =
    Delta P X Delta V
  70. Can be calculated as the product of the pressure across the respiratory system and the resulting change in volume.
    The mechanical work of breathing
  71. In healthy adults Apporx. ____ of the work of breathing can be attributed to elastic forces opposing ventilation.
  72. ___ of work of breathing is from frictional resistance to gas and tissue movement.
  73. Persons with pulmonary disease have an increased;
    work of breathing
  74. In restrictive lung disease, the area of volume-pressure curve is ____ because the slope of the static component (compliance) is less than normal.
  75. In obstrictive disease, the volume-pressure curve is _____ because the portion associated with frictional resistance is greater.
  76. In healthy individuals, the mechanical work of breathing depends on the pattern of_____
  77. Large tidal volumes increase the ______ component of work and High breathing rates increase ______ work.
    elastic frictional
  78. Patients with decreased compliance, increased elastic work of breathing will assume a ____, ___ breathing pattern.
    rapid shallow
  79. Patients with airway obstruction assume a ventilatory pattern that reduces the _____, ____ breathing
    frictional work, slow deep breathing
  80. In the work of breathing the respiratory musciles consume?
  81. The rate of O2 consumption (VO2) by the rep. muscles reflects their?
    energy requirements
  82. The oxygen cost of breathing in healthy individuals
    0.5-1.0 mL
  83. The oxygen cost of breathing is what percentage of the bodies total O2 consumption?
  84. Is the inspiratory pressure generated by the diaphragm
    Transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi)
  85. Pulmonary disease will do what to the oxygen cost of breathing?
    Increase it
  86. Two factors that affect regional distribution of gas in the healthy lung:
    Relative differences in thoracic expansion regional transpulmonary pressure gradients
  87. In upright individuals, the regional factors direct more vintilation to the ____ and ___ of the lungs tha to the apices and central zones
    bases and periphery
  88. Expantion of the lower chest is approx. ____ greater than that of the upper chest.
  89. Due to the configuration of the thoracic bony structures, the action of the resp. muscles, diaphram preferentially inflating the lower lobes.
    Lower chest expansion is greater.
  90. transpulmonary pressure is ____ throughout the thorax.
    not equal
  91. Alveolar pressure is directly related to the
    Pleural pressure
  92. The weight of the lung and the gravity effect the pleural pressure apex is?
    -10 cmH2O
  93. the weight of the lung and the gravity effect the pleural pressure base
    -2.5 cm H2O
  94. Lung units with high compliance have less elastic recoil than normal; therefore they?
    fill and empty more slowly
  95. Lung units with low compliance have high elastic recoil compared to normal and they fill and empty faster but have _____.
    A Smaller Volume
  96. Time constants =
    resistance X Compliance
  97. At increased bretahing rates, units with long tim constances?
    fill and empty slowly than normal
  98. When more inspired volume goes to a smaller number of lung units, _________ must be generated to maintain alveolar ventilation.
    Higher transpulmonary pressure
  99. is when the compliance of the lung appears to decrease as breathing frequency increases.
    frequency dependence of compliance
  100. is used to asses pressure-volume relationships during breathing ( it includes airway resistance)
    Dynamic compliance
  101. If dynamic compliance decreases as the respiratory rate increases, some lung units must have _________.
    abnormal time constants
  102. this is when ventilation consumes little oxygen and produces the minimum amount of CO2
  103. this is when ventilation meets the body's needs for O2 uptake and CO2 removal
  104. is the volume of inspired gas that is wasted with each breath.
    Dead space
  105. This happens to the gas in the conducting aorways that do not take place in the gas exchange.
  106. Formula for total exhaled minute ventilation (*VE)
  107. is the total volume of gas moving in or out of the lungs per minute
    minute ventilation
  108. VE is usual expressed in?
  109. VE is calculated by multiplying?
    RR and VT
  110. in healthy adults the VE range is?
  111. is the product of breathing rate and alveolar volume per breath.
    Alveolar ventilation
  112. gas that reached the alveoli is calculated as:
  113. Alveolar ventilation can then be calculated:
    VA= RR X VA
  114. VE is always less than VA because of the effect of.
    Dead Space
  115. is the volume of conducting airways and averages about 1ml perlb. of body weight.
    Anatomical dead space
  116. is due to alveoli that are ventilated but not perfused such as with an embolism.
    Alveolar dead space
  117. is the sum of anatomical and alveolar dead space. it more accuratelt assesses alveolar ventilation.
    Physiological dead space
  118. Determines the amount of tidal volume that is physiological dead space
    modified bohr equation
  119. What is the modified bohr equation
  120. What percent of the tidal volume is dead space?
  121. Symbol for physiological dead space
  122. provides an index of the wasted ventilation per breath.
  123. normal VD/VT in adults is approx. ____ of the tidal volume
  124. normal range of VD/VT
  125. is when ventilation removes CO2 at the rate that maintains a normal pH
    effective ventilation
  126. At rest how much CO2 does the body produce?
  127. Ventilation that does not meet metabolic needs
  128. The normal PaCO2
  129. ventilation in excess of metabolic needs
  130. is an increase in ventilation that occurs with increased metabolic rates, PaCO@ remains in a normal range
  131. is an abnormal elevation of breathing rate and only is hyperventilation confirmed by a low PaCO2
  132. Hypo or hyperventilation must be determined by?