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2011-12-08 22:29:58
Chemistry Final

Chemistry - Final
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  1. Chemistry
    Natural science concerned with description and classificaton of matter, changes matter undergoes, and energy associated with each
  2. Divisions of Chemistry
    • Inorganic (Genderal)
    • Organic
    • Bichemistry
    • Embalming chemistry
  3. Inorganic (General) chemistry
    Studies properties and reactions of elements, excluding organic or certain carbon-containing compounds
  4. Organic chemistry
    Study of Carbon and its compounds

    More carbon compounds than non-carbon compounds
  5. Biochemistry
    Chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms

    Subdivision of organic chemistry

    Reffered to as physiological chemistry or chemistry of plant and animal systems
  6. Embalming chemistry
    Study of chemical post-mortem (decompostion) changes, composition of embalming fluids, interactions between each
  7. Chemical measurements - Metric system
    • Length - meter
    • Volume - liter
    • Mass - Kilogram
    • Heat- calorie
    • Temperature - Kelvin
  8. Length - meter
    Fundamental unit
  9. Volume - liter
    derived unit, 1 L = 1.06 qt.
  10. Mass - kilogram
    Fundamental unit, measure of amount of matter it contains, remails constant regardless of location
  11. Heat - calorie (small c)
    Amount of hear required to raise temp. of 1 gram of water

    large Calorie or Kilo-calorie (Cal or Kg-cal) amount of heat required to raise temp. of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius
  12. Temperature - Kelvin (K)
    Standards of temp. are based on freezing and boiling point of water

    Celsius scale, freezing point is 0 and boiling point is 212

    Absolute (Kelvin) scale reads 273 degrees higher than Celsius scale
  13. Temp. Equivalents
    Fahrenheit Celsius

    • 212 100
    • 98.6 37
    • 32 0
    • 0 -32
    • -40 -40
    • -459 -273
  14. Matter
    Anything that occupies space and has mass
  15. Physical Properties
    Without change in chemical composition including color, taste, solubility, density, hardness, melting and boiling point

    Freezing /melting point @ equilibrium
  16. State of Matter
    Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasmas
  17. Solubility
    How well two substances mix; ability to go into solution
  18. Density
    Ratio of mass of substance to its volume; D = m/v

    Greater density, heavier object per unit of volume
  19. Specific gravity
    Ratio of densities with water as standard
  20. Chemical Properties
    Characteristic observed when substance is interacting with other substances resulting in change in chemcal composition
  21. Changes in matter
    New substance or substances are produced that have entirely different properties from original substance because chemical composition has changed
  22. Physical Change in matter
    Change in form of state of matter without any change in chemical composition

    Changes in state - Solid, Liquid, Gas

    Solvation (dissolving)
  23. Solvation (dissolving)
    Going into solution; salt in water
  24. Chemical Changes in matter
    New substance or substances are produced that have entirely different properties from original substance because chemical composition has changed; souring of milk

    • Creamation of remains
    • Decomposition of remains
    • Embalming of remains
  25. Gases
    State of matter having ability to diffuse; no definite shape or volume and assume shape and volume of container

    • Liquefaction - become liquid
    • Condensation - change of state from gas to liquid
    • Vaporization - physical change from liquid (or solid) to gas
    • Diffusion
  26. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules or other particles in solution from area of greater concentration to area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration or equilibrium is reached
  27. Liquids
    Substance with ability to flow and does not expand indefinetely

    • Viscosity - resistance to flow
    • Surface tension - force acts on surface of liquid tends to minimise surface area
    • Diffusion
    • Solidification - conversion of liquid or gas to solid
    • Crystallization - substance given definite form or shape
    • Freezing - from liquid to solid
    • Boiling - rapid passage of liquid to vapor state ; Vapor = gaseous state
  28. Solids
    Condensed state of matter having definite (fixed) shape and volume

    • Melting - from solid to liquid
    • Sublimation - solid to gas without passing through liquid state, result of absorption of heat
  29. Plasmas
    4th state of matter; refers to ionized gas; electrically conductive so it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields; properties unlike those of sloids, liquids, or gases, distinct state of matter; typically takes form of neutral gas-like clouds

    most common phase of matter in universe, both by mass and by volume
  30. Types of matter based upon composition
    Elements, compounds, mixtures
  31. Elements
    Simple (pure) substance that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means, basics of which all matter is composed

    Building blocks of all matter

    Properties give them definite place on Periodic Table of Elements
  32. Symbol
    Each element is represented by a symbol

    First letter of name of element, or first two letters, or first letter and one other letter to suggest sound that is apparent in name

    First letter is capitalized, second is not

    Some based upon their Latin names
  33. Compounds
    Substance consisting of two or more atoms combined chemically in definite proportions by mass

    The more electropositive element named first, then add -ide or -ite, etc. to second

    • Reactions known by equations (Na + Cl = NaCl)
    • (2H + SO4 = H2SO4)
  34. Formula
    Combination of symbols used to express chemical composition of substance; know compounds by the formula

    Formula is Qualitative and Quantitative (what & how many) expression of compound
  35. Acids
    Yeilds hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution; donates proton, accepts pair of electrons; pH less than 7

    Every acid has hydrogen
  36. Bases
    Yeilds hydroxide ions in aqueous solution; accepts proton, donates pair of electrons; pH more than 7

    Every base has hydroxide
  37. Salts
    Group of substances that result from reaction between acids and bases other than water

    NaCl - Neither one is H or OH

    HCl+NaOH = NaCl+HOH
  38. Oxides
    Compound consisting of oxygen combined with only one other element

    Fe23+O32- - CO2 - CO
  39. Mixture
    Combination of two or more substances not chemically united and in no definite proption by mass

    • Air- gas in gas
    • Embalming fluid - varies with formula, gas in liquid
    • Blood - colloidal suspension
    • Concrete - sand, gravel and portland cement
  40. Energy
    Ability of system or material to do work
  41. Potential Energy
    Stored energy, energy at rest
  42. Kinetic Energy
    Energy of body by virtue of its motion; speeding locomotive, an avalanche, falling water
  43. Atom
    Smallest particle (unit) of an element that has all properties of the element

    Comprised of Protons+, Neurtons+-, and Electrons

    Change number of electrons and get ion of element; change number of neutrons and get isotope of element; cannot change number of protons and have same element
  44. Protons rule
    Number of protons determines element
  45. Molecule
    Smallest unit of compound which can exist alone; aggregation of atams, specifically chemical combination of two or more atoms which form specific chemical substance

    Smallest unit of compound that retains all properties of compound
  46. Oxidation Number
    Number used to represent number of electrons lost, gained or shared in chemical change
  47. Ion
    Atomic or molecular species with positive (cation) or negative (anion) electrical charge

    Atom that has lost or gained electron
  48. Chemical Elements
    • Aluminum - Al
    • Bromine - Br
    • Calcium - Ca
    • Carbon - C
    • Chlorine - Cl
    • Copper (element) - Cu
    • Fluorine - F
    • Helium - He
    • Hydrogen - H
    • Iodine - I
    • Iron - Fe
    • Mecury - Hg
    • Nitrogen - N
    • Oxygen - O
    • Phosphorus - P
    • Potassium - K
    • Sodium - Na
    • Sulfur - S
  49. Monatomic ion
    Charged entity consisting of only single atom; atom (single) that has lost or gained electron
  50. Polyatomic ion
    Group of atoms that act as unit and possess charge; radical

    • Ammonium - formula NH4+1
    • Bicarbonate - formula HCO3-2
    • Hydroxide - formula OH-1
    • Hypochlorite - formula OCl-1
    • Phosphate - formula PO4-3
    • Sulfate - formula SO4-2
  51. Solutions
    Homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dissolved in sufficient quantity of solvent
  52. Solute
    Substance (solid, liquid, gas) dissolved in solvent to form solution

    Component of solution present in lesser amount
  53. Solvent
    Substance which does the dissolving in solution

    Component of solution present in greater amount

    Water = universal solvent
  54. Types of solution
    Known (defined) by size of sloute particles
  55. True solution (crystalloid)
    Mixture of two or more substances able to pass through semi permeable membrane

    Size of solute particles is less than one nanometer; will never settle out of solution
  56. Colloid
    Solution-like system in which size of solute particles is between 1 and 100 nanometers

    Pass through filters but not membranes; will eventually settle out of solution
  57. Suspension
    Mixture of solute and solvent in which size of solute particle is greater than 100 nanometers

    Do not pass through filters or membranes
  58. Expressing concentrations
    Ratio of solute to solvent
  59. Qualitatively
    • Dilute
    • Concentrated
    • Saturated
    • Unsaturated
  60. Dilute
    Relatively small amount of solute
  61. Concentrated
    Relatively large amount of solute
  62. Saturated
    Containing all of solute the solvent is able to hold at certain temp. and pressure; dynamic equilibrium ( as much going in as going out)
  63. Unsaturated
    Less solute than can be held in solution by solvent; not holding max amount of solute; not saturated, may be dilute or concentrated
  64. Quantitatively
    Index as opposed to %; mixing units of measurement

    Percent by weight and by volume

    Ratios (1:1000)
  65. Allocation
    Difference in each starting solution compared to ending solution and cross to opposite starting solution

    • 35% - 5 parts
    • 10%
    • 5% - 25 parts
  66. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules or other particles in solution from area of greater concentration to area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached
  67. Factors influencing diffusion
    Temperature - increase temp., increase rate of diffusion

    Concentration of solute - more concentrated, more rapid diffusion

    Size of molecular weight of solute - smaller molecule, faster diffuses

    Agitation - stirring increase rate of diffusion; QSAD
  68. QSAD
    Quantity Sufficient ADded
  69. Osmosis
    Passage of pure solvent from solution of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration when two solutions are separated by semipermeable membrane which selectively prevents passage of solute molecules, but is permeable to solvent
  70. Hypotonic
    Lesser concentration of dissolved solute; RBC swell and burst (hemolysis)
  71. Hypertonic
    Greater concentration of dissolved solute; RBC shrivel and shrink (crenation)
  72. Isotonic
    Equal concentration of dissolved solute; as much solution flows in as out
  73. Solubility
    How well two substances mix; ability to go into solution
  74. Selected Elements
    OIL RIG - Oxidation is Loss (of electron), Reduction is Gain (of electron)

    Oxidation is a gain in positive valence, Reduction is gain in negative valence

    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
    • Halogens
    • Nitrogen
    • Others
  75. Oxygen (occurrence)
    Most abundant element on earth's surface

    Oxidizing agent is one being reduced; Reducing agent is one being oxidized
  76. Oxidation
    Combination of substance with oxygen or some other non metal; increase in oxidation number (gain positive valence); loss of electrons, electron donor
  77. Reduction
    Decrease in oxidation number (increase negative valence); gain of electrons (electron receiver); combination of substance with hydrogen or some other metal
  78. Combustion
    Rapid oxidation (burning) produces heat and light
  79. Hydrogen
    No neutrons; most abundand element in universe
  80. Halogens
    Salt formers; extremely poisonous

    • Chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine - all 1 - oxidation state
    • Excellent disinfectants
    • Chlorine as bleaching agent, bleaches by oxidation
  81. Nitrogen (occurrence)
    Most abundant element in earth's atmosphere; Nitorgen neutralizes aldehydes
  82. Metal (other selected element)
    Element marked by luster, malleability, ducility, conductivity or electricity and heat; form positive ions
  83. Nonmetal (other selected element)
    Element that is not a metal; form negative ions
  84. Selected Compounds
    • Water (universal solvent)
    • Ammonia
  85. Water (universal solvent)
    Most abundant compound on earth's surface

    H2O (emperical formula); pH of 7 (as much H as OH)
  86. Desiccation
    water has been removed
  87. Water Hardness
    Condition of water which results from dissolved minerals and metallic ions such as calcium and magnesium

    hardness if bicarbonate ions will boil away

    Permanently hard if present as chlorides
  88. Hydrates (holds water)
    Is chemical union between water and certain other substances when they crystallize; wet and gooey
  89. Anhydrous
    Without water
  90. Hydrolysis
    Chemical reaction which substance is broken down or dissociated by water, reaction between salt and water to yeild an actid and base of unequal strengths (NaCl+HOH = NaOH+HCl)

    Opposite of neutralization reaction

    Breaking down by taking in element of water
  91. Dehydration
    Removal of water
  92. Synthesis
    Combine by taking water out
  93. Ammonia (NH3)
    Stable compound; Ammonium ion (NH4) not stable

    Decomposition product of proteins

    Neutralization with formaldehyde; results in urotropin (a.k.a methenamine & hexamethylenamine) C6H14N4
  94. Ionization
    Dissociation of substance in solution into ions
  95. Ion
    Atom that has gained or lost electron becoming charged particle
  96. Acids (Ionization)
    Yeilds hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution

    Donates proton; accepts pair of electrons
  97. Bases (Ionization)
    Yeilds hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

    Accepts proton; donates pair of electrons
  98. Salts (Ionization)
    Group of substances that result from reaction between acids and bases other than water

    Product of neutralization reaction

    Compound of 2 or more elements, neither one H or OH
  99. Cation
    Positively charged atom or group of atoms

    Cathode = Negative charge (-) to attract positively charged ions
  100. Anion
    Negatively charged atom or group of atoms

    Anode = Positive charge (+) to attract negatively charged ions
  101. pH: Acid/Base scale
    Scale of 1-14, 7 being neutral

    As much acid as base" H - OH
  102. Neutralization
    Reaction of acid and base to produce salt and water
  103. Radioactivity
    Property causes element to emit radiation from nucleus of atom
  104. Types of radiation
    • Alpha particles
    • Beta particles
    • Gamma rays
    • X-rays
  105. Units of radiation
    • Curie
    • Roentgen (R)
    • Rad (radiation absorbed dose)
    • Rem (radiation equivalent, man)
  106. Curi
    Unit of radiation

    Number of nuclear disintegrations occurring per second
  107. 1 Curie (1 Ci)
    37 billion
  108. 1 millicurie (1mCi)
    37 million
  109. 1 microcurie (1uCi)
  110. Roentgen (R)
    X-rays and gamma rays only

    Intensity of X-rays and gamma rays that produces 2 billion ion pairs in 1 ml. of air

    Not used to measure radiation in tissues
  111. Rad (radiation absorbed dose)
    Amount of radiation energy absorbed by tissue

    Absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of tissue
  112. Rem (radiation equivalent, man)
    Amount of radiation absorbed by human being

    Ionizing radiation that has effect equal to absorption of 1 Roentgen
  113. Detection and measurement of radiation
    Geiger counter
  114. Raioisotopes
    Medically, diagnosis and treatment of disorders
  115. Half-life
    Amount of time required for half of atoms in sample to decay
  116. Radioisotopes used in medicine
    • Iodine-131
    • Iodine-123
    • Technetium-99m
    • Cobalt-60
    • Cobalt-57
    • Phosphorus-32
    • Radium-226
    • Gold-198
    • Strontium-89
  117. Radiation Protection
    Shielding, distance, limiting time of exposure
  118. Sources of radiation
    • Natural background radiation
    • Medical radiation
    • Radioactive wastes
  119. Release of body with radioactivity
    Un-autopsied - 30 millicuries

    Autopsied - 5 millicuries
  120. Properties of carbon
    Comnining capacity - will form 1,2 or 3 bonds (single, double or triple covalent bonds) with another carbon; will share four electrons with 2 - 4 other elements

    C-C, C=C and C=_C (double and triple bonds less stable)
  121. Isomerism
    Possession by two or more distinct compounds of same molecular formula, each molecule having same number of atoms of each element but in different arrangement

    Same molecular formula with different structural, physical arrangement
  122. Allitropism
    Existing in more than one elemental form, such as Coal, Diamond, and Graphite
  123. # Carbons
    • 1 Methyl
    • 2 Ethyl
    • 3 Propyl
    • 4 Butyl
    • 5 Pentyl
  124. OH
    Alcohol group (in organic chemistry)
  125. Formulas (organic chemistry)
    Combination of symbols used to express chemical composition of substance
  126. Molecular (Empirical) formulas
    Expressing number of atoms of each element present in molecule of substance, without indicating how they are linked

    Whats's present and how many of each

  127. Structural formulas
    Showing spatial relationship between substituent atoms in molecule; who's holding hands with who

    • H H
    • H-C - C - OH
    • H H
  128. Line formulas
    Condensed version of structural formula written all on one line still showing relationship between substituents groups in molecule

  129. General formulas
    Denotes class of compounds and includes functional group and symbol (R) denoting alkyal radical

    Capital "R" = general formula
  130. R-OH
  131. RCOOH
  132. RCHO
  133. ROR'
  134. RCOOR'
  135. Classes of organic compounds
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Alcohols
    • Aldehydes
    • Ketones
    • Carboxylic acids
    • Esters
    • Ethers
    • Amines
    • Amides
    • Thioalcohols (Mercaptans)
  136. Hydrocarbons
    Contains only carbon and hydrogen

    May be Alophatic - straight chain, or Cyclic - circular
  137. Saturated Hydrocarbons
    Only single bonds between carbons

    • Alkanes
    • Alkyl group
    • Alkyl halide
  138. Alkanes
    Saturated hydrocarbon; single bonds only

    Type formula - CnH2n+2 (N=Carbons). Multiply by 2, add 2 Hydrogens

    • Methane - CH4, simplest alkane, 1 carbon
    • Ethane - C2H6, 2 carbon alkane
    • Propane - C3H8, 3 carbon alkane
  139. Alkyl group
    Monocalent radical of general formula CnH2n+1; alkane loses one hydrogne atom

    CH3- - simplest methy group
  140. Alkyl halide
    One or more halogen atoms attached; X represents alkyl halide

    R-X = general formula (CH2X2 - Chloroform)
  141. End in __ Carbons have
    -ane Single bond

    -ene Double bond

    -yne Triple bond
  142. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    Containing carbon and hydrogen, one or more double or triple bonds between two carbon atoms

    • Alkenes
    • Alkynes
  143. Unsaturated Alkenes
    Hydrocarbon containing double bond between carbons

    Type formula - CnH2n (# carbons multiplied by 2 = # hydrocarbons)

    Ethene - C2H4 - simplest alkene
  144. Unsaturated Alkynes
    Hydrocarbon containing triple bond between carbons

    Type formula - CnH2n-2 (# carbons multiplied by 2, minus 2 = # hydrocarbons)

    Ethyne (acetylene) - C2H2 - simplest alkyne
  145. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Special class of cyclic compounds containing benzene ring as parent structure

    • Benzene
    • Toluene
  146. Benzene
    C6H6 - simplest form - six-sided surrounded by Hydrogen

    Parent structure of all aromatic compounds
  147. Toluene
    C6H5CH3; methyl group (CH3) replaced hydrogen

    Methyl derivative of benzene
  148. Alcohols
    Containing one or more hydroxyl (-OH) group

    General formula for monohydroxy alcohol is R-OH (R = hydrocarbon group)

    Classification = Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
  149. Primary Alcohol
    Functional group (OH) attached to hydrogen, or no more than one other carbon

    • Methanol, methyl alcohol, wood alcohol (1 Carbon)
    • Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol (2 Carbon)
  150. Secondary Alcohol
    Isopropyl alcohol (propanol), rubbing alcohol

    Minimum or 3 carbons; acive group (-OH) attached to carbon attached to two other carbons

  151. Tertiary Alcohol
    Monohydroxy alcohol which hydroxyl group (-OH) is attached to carbon attached to three other carbons

    Tertiary Butyl Alcohol - simplest

    • CH
    • CH3 - C - CH3
    • OH
  152. Iso
    Same, Isosceles triangle

    Iso - (propyl, pentyl, etc.); must be odd # of carbons with functional -OH group attached to middle carbon

    • H OH H
    • H - C - C - C - H
    • H H H
  153. Dihydroxy Alcohol
    Ethylene glycol - simplest

    All glycols have 2 OH groups (antifreeze)
  154. Trihydroxy Alcohol

    3 OH groups

    • C - C - C
    • OH OH OH
  155. Polyhydroxy Alcohol
    Sorbital (6 carbon)

    6 OH groups; best humectant

    • C - C - C - C - C - C
  156. Phenol or Carbolic Acid
    Excellent preservative, won't coagulate, simplest aromatic
  157. # Carbons
    • Meth - 1 Wood alcohol
    • Eth - 2 Grain alcohol
    • Prop - 3 Tri
    • Butyl - 4 (any time after 1, usually 4 or more)
    • Penytl - 5
  158. Aldehydes
    Containing one or more -CHO groups

    General formula - R-CHO (R = hydrocarbon or hydrogen)

    Partial oxidation of primary alcohol like methanol

    Methanal, formaldehyde, simplest



  159. Methanal, Formaldehyde
    Formula - HCHO

    Preparation - methane oxidized to methanol (wood alcohol), methanal (formaldehyde), methanoic acid (formic), CO2, H2O, energy
  160. Properties of Formaldehyde
    • Colorless gas
    • Irritating odor
    • Soluble in water
    • Readily oxidized to formic acid
    • Polymerization to paraformaldehyde (paraform)
    • Index
    • Formaldehyde Strong Reducing Agent
  161. Polymerization
    Linking together of monomers to form polymer; HCHO in sold form
  162. Index
    Strength of embalming fluids in 100 ml of solution; % HCHO in solution
  163. Uses of formaldehyde
    Coagulated proteins

    Disinfectant, Neutralized by Ammonia, Preservative
  164. Preservative
    Inactivate active chemical groups of proteins and amino acids; inhibit decomposition; kill microorganisms; destroy odors and eliminate further formation; inactivate enzymes
  165. Formalin
    Formaldehyde gas dissolved in water at highest concentration

    37% by weight; 40% by volume
  166. Ethanal
    Acetaldehyde - 2 carbon (CH3CHO)
  167. Benzaldehyde
    Aromatic - 7 carbon

    Benzene ring with aldehyde (-CHO) attached
  168. Dialdehydes
    Containing two aldehyde (-CHO) radicals

    Glyoxal - 2 carbons

    Glutaraldehyde - 5 carbon dialdehyde
  169. Glyoxal
    2 carbon

    Ethalene Glycol oxidized to Glyoxal

    Simplest dialdehyde
  170. Glutaraldehyde
    5 carbon dialdehyde on ends of group; good disinfectant
  171. Ketones
    Containing carbonyl group (C=O) whose carbon atom is joined to two other carbons; carbonyl group occurs within carbon chain

    Partial oxidation of secondary alcohol; 3rd carbon in middle; solvents

    one = ketone

    General formula - R-CO-R

    Propanone or acetone - simplest ketone

    Ketone is last step in oxidation series for secondary alcohol
  172. Carboxylic acids (organic acids)
    Containing carboxyl group OH (-COOH); very weak acids

    Partial oxidation of aldehydes

    General formula - R-COOH

    Methanoic or formic acid (HCOOH)

    Ethanioc or acetic acid; 2 carbon - CH3COOH (vinegar)

    oic = carboxylix acid
  173. Esters
    General formula RCOOR' (R is hydrocarbon or hydrogen, R' is hydrocarbon)

    Formed from alcohol and organic (or carboxylic) acid by removal of water (dehydration synthesis)

    Acid with alcohol

    ate = ester

    General formula - R-COO-R; fruity odor, masking agent

    • Ethyl acetate (ethyl alcohol and acidic acid)
    • Methyl salicylate (windergreen)
  174. Esterification
    Making ester from alcohol and organic acid by removal of water
  175. Ethers
    General formula - R-O-R' (R and R' are hydrocarbon formed by dehdration between two alcohols)

    Alcohols and Ethers only structures without carbonyl carbon (C=O), no double bond

    Diethyl ether (sleep); 4 carbon CH3CH2OCH2CH3
  176. Amines
    Containing Nitrogen; any group formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals

    General formula for primary amines - R-NH2

    Properties - Alkaline (basic), Disagreeable odor, Decomposition products of protein

    Neutralizes formaldehyde

    Methyl amine (CH3NH2) - simplest amine

    Quaternary ammonium compounds
  177. Quaternary ammonium compounds
    "Surface-active agents", counter top or surface of body

    Disinfection of skin, oral and nasal cavities and instruments; topical disinfectant
  178. Amides
    Derived from ammonia by substitution of carbonyl group (C=O, double bonded oxygen) for hydrogen, or from acid by replacing -OH group by amino group (-NH2)

    Decomposition of proteins

    HCOOH + NH3 = HCONH2

    General formula - R-CONH-R

    • Dimethylformamide - solvent for chemical reactions
    • Urea - simple amide
  179. Thioalcohols (Mercaptans)
    General formula - R-SH

    Similar to alcohol which oxygen of hydroxyl group is replaced by sulfur (-SH); Sulfur containing compounds products of decomposition

    Disulfide - H - S - S - H or R - S - S - R'
  180. Carbohydrates
    C, H, and O in all cases, aldehyde or ketone derivative of polyhydroxy alcohol

    Sugars, starches, glycogen

  181. Cellulose
    Complex carbohydrate, most abundant compound in biosphere

    -ose = sugar
  182. Carbohydrates Classification


  183. Monosaccharides
    Simple sugars; final hydrolytic products of polysaccharides or complex sugars

    Final oxidation - CO2 + H2O + Energy

    • Aldose
    • Ketose
    • Pentose
    • Hexose
  184. Aldose
    Monosaccharide sugar; hydroxyl (-OH) and aldehyde (-CHO) on end carbon
  185. Ketose
    Monosaccharide sugar; hydroxyl (-OH) and ketone C=O attached to secondary carbon
  186. Pentose
    Monosaccharide sugar; 5 carbon sugar molecule
  187. Hexose
    Monosaccharide sugar; 6 carbon sugar molecule; most abundant type of sugar

    • Glucose - molecular formula C6H12O6; Aldose sugar
    • Fructose - fruit sugar
  188. Disaccharides
    Two monosaccharide units

    Molecular formula - C12H22O11 (water taken out); Hydrolyze to yeild 2 monosaccharides (2 C6H12O6)

    • Sucrose - table sugar (mixture glucose & fructose)
    • Lactose - milk sugar
  189. Polysaccharides
    Number of simple sugar molecules; Starches and cellulose; many sub-units

    • Starch - plants store energy as starch
    • Glycogen - animal starch; chains of alpha glucose molecules (Humans store sugar as glycogen)
    • Cellulose - most abundant compound in biosphere
  190. Cellulose
    Polysaccharide; most abundant compound in biosphere

    Structural substance of plants, not affected by enzymes (cannont be digested by humans)
  191. Reactions of Carbohydrates
    Final Hydrolysis Products - Monosaccharides

    Final oxide - CO2 + H2O and energy

    Fermentation - Decomposition
  192. Fermentation - Decomposition
    Anaerobic process takes place in presence of enzyme (generally from yeast); C6H12O6 - C2H6O [CH3CH2OH (Ethyl alcohol)]

    Chemical reactions induced by living nonliving ferments that split complex organic compounds into relatively simple substances

    Anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast
  193. Lipids
    C, H, O in all cases

    Fats, Oils, and Waxes

    Simple and Compound lipids
  194. Simple Lipids
    Hydrolytic products are fatty acids & alcohols


    Hydrolytic products - 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acid

    Final oxidation - CO2, H2O, Energy
  195. Fats & Oils Physical Properties
    Fats - semi-soild; Oil - liquid; Wax - solid

    Lipoproteins - proteins contain fat


    Final Hydrolytic - 1 Glycerol, 3 fatty acids

    Final Oxidation - CO2, H2O, Energy

  196. Fat
    Triacylglycerol that is semisolid or solid at room temp., contains high percentage of saturated fatty acids; Animals
  197. Oil
    Triacylglycerol that is liquid at room temp., contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids; Plants main source
  198. Emulsification
    Mixing two insoluble liquids; break down large molecule into small ones that are suspended in solution
  199. Bile
    Produced in liver, stored in gall bladder; holds fats in solution
  200. Saponification
    Reaction between fat and stron base to produce glycerol and salt of fatty acid (soap); soap formation; Adipocere
  201. Adipocete
    Gravewax - wax-like material produced by saponification of body fat in body buried in alkaline soil; more corpulent person, greater effect
  202. Waxes
    Lipid formed from combination of unsaturated and/or saturated fatty acids and high-molecular-weight alcohols (not glycerol)

    Solid at room temp.

    1 monohydroxy alcohol, 1 fatty acid
  203. Compound Lipids
    Lipid whose hydrolytic producs are fatty acids, alcohol, and other substances

    C, H, O, S and P (Sulfur and Phosphorus)
  204. Proteins
    Biological compound that is polymer of many amino acids; most abundant compound in body (other than water); Glycoproteins

    C, H, O, N in all cases

    Final hydrolytic products - Amino Acids

    Final Oxidation - CO2, H2O, N (Nitrogenous products), Energy
  205. Glycoproteins
    Proteins that contain carbohydrates
  206. Amino Acids
    Building blocks of proteins; compound containing amino group (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH [C=O)], and radical

    Glycine - simplest

    Properties of amino acids - Amphoteric, Allotropism
  207. Amphoteric
    Compound that can act as both acid and base

    Ammonia (NH2) is basic while COOH is Acidic
  208. Allotropism
    Existence of element in two or more distinct forms
  209. Buffers
    Substances in solution capable of neutralizing both acids and bases, thereby maintaining original (or constant) pH of solution

    Protiens act as buffers in aqueous solution
  210. Peptide Bond
    Dehydration reaction between amino group on one amino acid with carboxyl (organic acid) group on other amino acid

    Holds amino acids together in protein; hooks amino end to carboxyl end of different amino acid

    Dipeptide - 2 amino acids hooked together
  211. Properties of Proteins
    • Imbibition
    • Coagulation
    • Final Hydrolysis Products - Amino Acids
    • Deamination
    • Decarboxylation
  212. Imibition
    Swelling and softening of tissues and organs as result of absorbing moisture from adjecent sources; Hold in water

    Imbibe - to drink

    Proteins have ability to hold large amount of water
  213. Coagulation
    Converting soluble protein to insoluble protein by heating or contact with chemical such as alcohol or aldehyde
  214. Deamination
    Removal of amino (-NH2) group from compound (amino acid)
  215. Decarboxylation
    Removal of carboxyl (-COOH) group from compound (amino acid); cannot preserve at this point of decomp.
  216. Enzymes
    Protein acts as biological catalyst; Organic catalysts produced by living organisms

    -ase = enzymes

    Autolysis - self-digestion
  217. Catalyst
    Substance that changes rate of chemical reaction but undergoes no net change intself during reaction
  218. Biocatalitic
    Catalyst of plant or animal origin
  219. Enzyme Chemical Properties
    Protein constitution - made of protien

    Specificity - Very; act on one substrate only

    High temp. coagulates

    Chemically labile (denaturation)
  220. Chemically labile (denaturation)
    Disruption and breakdown (unfolding) of secondary structure of protein by heat of chemicals; ruins
  221. Autolysis
    Self- digestion or self-destruction of body by autolytic enzymes; Enzymes are necessary for body to eat itself
  222. Action of preservative chemicals in Embalming chemistry
    Inactivate chemical groups of proteins and amino acids

    Inhibits further decomposition

    Inactivates enzymes

    Kills microorganisms

    Destroys odors and eliminates further production
  223. Methanol
    CH3OH; prevents polymerization of formaldehyds to paraformaldehyde
  224. Partial oxidation series for methane
    Ch4, Alcohol (methyl alcohol) CH3OH, Aldehyde HCHO, Formic Acid HCOOH, Co2 + H2O + Energy
  225. Oxidation
    Complete oxidation is removal of all hydrogen from carbon leading to CO2
  226. Reduction
    Complete reduction is removal of all oxygen from carbon leading to CH4
  227. Chemistry of formaldehyde preserved tissue
    Protein bonding before and after embalming

    Reversibility - in abundance of water

    Cross-linking action
  228. Formaldehyde demand
    Total amount of formaldehyde with which protein will combine to be completely preserved; more decomp., higher demand due to more nitrogen exposure
  229. Searing of tissue caused by formaldehyde
    Tissue with exposed dermis turns brown when exposed to formaldehyde
  230. 3 basic embalming fluids
    Arterial, Cavity, Accessory Chemicals
  231. Arterial fluid
    Preservatives, Supplementary germicides, Modifying agents, Dyes, Deoderants, Vehicles
  232. Arterial Preservatives
    Used to inactivate active chemical groups of proteins and amino acids; inhibit decomposition; kill microorganisms; destroy odors and eliminate further production; inactivate enzymes

    In all arterial fluids
  233. Arterial Preservatives
    Aldehydes, Alcohols, Phenolic Compounds
  234. Arterial Aldehydes
    One or more -CHO groups

    General formula - RCHO (R is hydrocarbon or hydrogen)
  235. Arterial Alcohols
    One or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups

    General formula for monohydroxy alcohol - R-OH (R is hydrocarbon)
  236. Arterial Phenolic compounds
    Used in Jaundice fluids; phenol will not cause dark green discoloration; used in triple based fluids as third preservative after formaldehyde and methanol
  237. Arterial Supplementary germicides
    Quaternary Ammonium compounds, Glutaraldehyde
  238. Arterial Quaternary Ammonium compounds
    Disinfectants for table tops, skin, oral and nasal cavities and instruments; may be added to arterial formulations

    Zephiran chloride and Benzalkonium chloride
  239. Glutaraldehyde
    5 carbon dialdehyde
  240. Arterial Modifying agents
    Humectants, Buffers, Water conditioning agents, Surfactants or surface-active agents
  241. Arterial Humectants
    Polyhydroxal alcohols - water retention in tissues of body

    Glycerol, Sorbitol, Glycols, Lanolins
  242. Glycerol
    Humectant; Trihydroxy alcohol (3 OH groups)
  243. Sorbitol
    Best Humectant; 6 carbon/6 OH groups
  244. Glycols
    Humectant; 2 hydroxyl groups; may have 2 or 3 carbons
  245. Lanolins
    Humectant; Emulsified oil (oil held in solution); soft texture to skin; decomposition product of Lanolins
  246. Arterial Buffers
    In solution capable of neutralizing acids and bases, maintaining original or constant pH

    Borax; Sodium phosphates; Citrates; Sodium salt of EDTA
  247. Arterial Water conditioning agents (anticoagulants)
    Sequesters calcium (calcium used in blood clotting)

    Sodium citrate; Sodium salt of EDTA
  248. Arterial Surfactants or surface-active agents
    Surface tension reducer; allows water to flow through smaller openings

    Sulfonates; Sodium lauryl sulfate (shampoo)
  249. Arterial Dyes
    Add red color; active - stains; inactive - no staining

    • Eosine - active, imparts color to tissue
    • Ponceau red - inactive, gives bottle fluid color
    • Erythrosine - active, color to tissue
    • Amaranth - red dye #2
  250. Arterial Deodorants (perfuming materials, masking agents)
    Hides odor of HCHO

    Benzaldehyde - 7 carbon; simplest aromatic aldehyde; benzene ring + CHO

    Oil of cloves (eugenyl acetate) - in creation and/or manufacture of fragrances of all types

    Oil of sassafras

    Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen)
  251. Arterial Vehicles
    Water - aqueous solution

    Alcohols - Methanol - Tincture solution
  252. Cavity fluid
    No modifying agents (humectants) or dyes

    Aldehydes, Alcohols, Phenolic compounds
  253. Cavity fluid Supplementary germicides
    Quaternary ammonium compounds, Glutaraldehyde
  254. Cavity Fluid Surfactants or surface actigve agents
    Sulfonates, Sodium lauryl sulfate
  255. Cavity Fluid Vehicles
    Water, Alcohols
  256. Accessory Fluids
    Pre-injection, Co-injection, Restorative fluids, Fluids for special conditions
  257. Pre-injection
    Contain little or no preservatives (HCHO); injected before arterial fluids to clear vascular system of blood and enable arterial solution to distribute with greater facility

    Water conditioning agents + buffer; Surfactants; Anticoagulants; Humectants; Low concentration preservatives
  258. Co-injection
    Injected at same time as arterial fluid
  259. Restorative fluids
    Supplemental fluids may be separate fluids from arterial fluids, enhancing arterial fluids by addition of special chemicals like humectants and color
  260. Fluids for special conditions
    Jaundice Fluid - Phenol based, low HCHO index

    High-index fluid - restorative art procedures need to be done wit edematous cases and decomp.
  261. Autopsy chemicals
    Solids -Paraformaldehyde, Aluminum chloride (dehydrating agent), Alum (dehydrating agent), Fillers, Plaster of Paris (dehydrating agent)

    Liquid (gel) - Used externally on surface for bedsores
  262. Fillers
    Used to fill body cavity when viscera are missing

    Perlite and Cellulose
  263. Perlite
    Volvanic rock; like cork, very light; won't absorb moisture
  264. Cellulose
  265. Plaster of Paris
    Absorbs water and turns hard; active component of hardening compounds; Exothermic (gives off heat)
  266. Factors influencing stability of fluids (shelf life)
    • Temperature (extreme)
    • Time - 2-5 years
    • Methanol as antipolymerization agent for formaldehyde
    • pH
    • Light - harmful, store in dark closed cabinet
  267. Chemistry of Decomposition
    Autolysis, Hydrolysis, Putrefaction, Decay
  268. Autolysis
    Self-digestion or self-destruction of body by autolytic enzymes
  269. Hydrolysis
    Chemical reaction in which substance is broken down or dissociated by water; reaction between salt and water to yield acid and base of unequal strengths
  270. Putrefaction
    Decomposition of proteins by action of enzymes of anaerobic bacteria; usually takes place from inside to outside body; strong odor
  271. Decay
    Decomposition of proteins caused by action of enzymes of aerobic bacteria; usually takes place from outside to inside body; low odor
  272. Putrescine
    Amine produced in putrefaction
  273. Monosaccharides
    Final products of hydrolysis of polysaccharides
  274. Amino Acids
    Final products of hydrolysis of proteins
  275. Fatty acids & Glycerol
    Final products of hydrolysis of fats
  276. Glycine
    Amino acid
  277. Vehicle
  278. Humectant
  279. Anticoagulant
    Sodium citrate
  280. Preservative
  281. Buffer
    Sodium tetraborate
  282. Buffer
    Resists changes in pH
  283. Quaternaties
  284. Deodorants
    Masking/perfuming agent
  285. Vehicles
  286. Surfactants
    Substance capable of bringing about reduction in surface tension of fluid
  287. Methyl alcohol
    Inhibits polymerization of HCHO
  288. Formalin
    Aqueous solution of methanal
  289. Urotropin
    Product of reaction between HCHO and NH3
  290. Formaldehyde
    Colorless gas
  291. Colloids
    When in solution will not pass through semi-permeable membranes
  292. Enzymes
    Specific in their action
  293. Blood sugar
  294. Pepsin
    Protein-digesting enzyme
  295. Autolysis
    Self-digestion of cells or tissues
  296. Putrefaction
    Anaerobic decomposition of proteins
  297. Amino Acids
    Protein hydrolysis products
  298. Amphoteric
    Possess both weak base and weak acid properties
  299. Fatty acids
    Hydrolysis products of fats
  300. Tristearin
    A fat
  301. Carbon dioxide
    Product produced by process of decarboxylation
  302. Viscosity
    Resistance which substance offers to flow
  303. Osmosis
    Movement of diffusible component through semipermeable membrane
  304. Hypertonic
    Having greater osmotic pressure than others with which it is compared
  305. Surface tension
    Phenomena resulting from uneven attraction that exists between molecules at surface of liquid
  306. Solution
    Homogeneous molecular mixture of two or more substances
  307. Viscosity
    Refers to thickness of liquid
  308. Solidification
    Molecules attract forming crystals
  309. Surface Tension
    Tight grouping together of surface molecules
  310. Boiling
    Molecules absorb heat and pull apart
  311. Colloidal
  312. Crystalloids
    Can crystallize out of solution
  313. Hypotonic solution
    Solution with lower concentration
  314. Hypertonic solution
    Solution with greater concentration
  315. Physiological salt solution
    .9% NaCl solution
  316. Dilute solution
    Small amount of solute in relation to solvent
  317. Supersaturated
    Contains more solute than can hold at ordinary times under ordinary conditions
  318. Concentrated solution
    Larger amount of solute in relation to solvent
  319. Saturated solution
    Solvent has dissolved as much solute as is possible at that temp. and pressure
  320. Unsaturated solution
    More solute can be dissolved at given temp.
  321. True solution
    Salt and Water
  322. Dilute solution
    Small amount of sloute
  323. Tincture solution
    Has alcohol as its solvent
  324. Dialysis
    Separation of crystalloids from colloids
  325. Colloidal
    Milk, Gelatin, Glue
  326. Agitation
    Factor which influences solubility
  327. Electron
    Negative charge
  328. Proton
    Positive charge
  329. Neutron
    No charge
  330. Nucleus
    Location of protons
  331. Orbits
    Location of electrons
  332. Acids
    Liberates hydrogen ions
  333. Bases
    Liberates hydroxyl ions
  334. Salts
    Neutralization reaction
  335. Oxides
    Oxygen plus another element
  336. Acetone
  337. Methanol
    Methyl alcohol
  338. Ethanoic acid
    Oxidation product of acetaldehyde
  339. Methanal
  340. Formalin
    Aqueous solution of formaldehyde
  341. H2O2
    Hydrogen peroxide
  342. NH4OH
  343. O3
    Formula for Ozone
  344. O2
    Formula for molecular oxygen
  345. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules from high to low concentration
  346. Colloid
    Will not pass through semipermeable membrane
  347. Osmosis
    Diffusion of solvent through semipermeable membrane
  348. Crystalloid
    Will pass through semipermeable membrane
  349. Dialysis
    Separation of crystalloids from colloids by means of semipermeable membrane
  350. Cathode
    Negative electrode
  351. Cation
    Positively charged atom or gorup of atoms
  352. Ion
    Positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms
  353. Anion
    Negatively charged atom or group of atoms
  354. Anode
    Positive electrode
  355. Density
    Mass per unit volume
  356. Specific gravity
    Weight of definite volume of substance divided by weight of equal volume of water
  357. Mass
    Measure of quantity of material expressed in pounds or grams
  358. Mixture
    Heterogeneous combination of two or more substances
  359. Solution
    Homogenous mixture of two or more substances
  360. Compound
    Chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportion by weight
  361. Element
    Fundamental matter
  362. Hydrate
    Compound resulting from water of crystallization included in its formula
  363. 212 degrees
    Fahrenheit boiling point
  364. 0 degrees
    Centigrade freezing point
  365. 32 degrees
    Fahrenheit freezing point
  366. 100 degrees
    Centigrade boiling point
  367. 37 degrees
    Centigrade normal body temp.
  368. Acid
    Yields H ions when in solution
  369. Base
    Yields OH ions when in solution
  370. Salt
    Product of neutralization of acid and base
  371. Metal
    Characterized by positive valences
  372. Non-metal
    Characterized by negative valences
  373. Aldose
    Contains aldehyde group in molecule
  374. Carbohydrate
    Aldehyde or ketone derivative of polyhydroxy alcohol
  375. Monosaccharides
    Contains saccharide grop
  376. Ketose
    Contains ketone group in molecule
  377. Hydrolysis
    Method by which body breaks down carbohydrates