# Chapter 10 - Biomechanics

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 Author: burkleyjensen ID: 121386 Filename: Chapter 10 - Biomechanics Updated: 2011-12-06 20:59:42 Tags: Podiatry boards II Folders: Description: Pocket podiatrics - biomechanics Show Answers:

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1. Patient has a meary's angle of 17 degrees and calcaneal inclination angle of 18. What foot type does the patient have?
• Meary's angle normal = 0 degrees
• 1-15 degrees = mild flatfoot
• > 15 degrees = severe flatfoot

• Calcaneal inclination angle = average is 20-25
• Decreased in pes planus
2. Patient has kites angle of 43. What type of foot might the patient have?
• pronated foot type
• normal range is 20-40 degrees, increased in pronation, decreased in supination.
3. There are two angles that might help you assess a calcaneal fracture. One increases and the other decreases.
• Bohlers angle decreases:
• Gissane's angle increases:
4. What is a normal metatarsal declination angle?
21 degrees
5. Does the angle of femoral torsion increase or decrease with age?
• decreases
• -It is the long axis of the neck with the dicondylar coronal plane
• 1 yr - 39 degree
• 10 yr - 24
• 21 yr - 16
• adult - 6
6. rate the metatarsal length from longest to shortest
2,3,5,4,1
7. rate the MT distal protrusion from longest to shortest
2, 3, 1, 4, 5
8. When calculating the MT protrusion your value is in relation to the 1st MT or 2nd MT.

For example is a MT protrusion of +2 mean the 1st MT is 2 mm longer than the 2nd or vice versa?
it is in relation to the 1st MT. A +2 MT protrusion means the 1st MT is 2 mm longer than 2nd.
9. A LLD of what value causes significant functional and structural problems?
5 mm or more
10. Differentiate between flexor stabilization, substitution and extensor substitution.

In this deformity the flexors overpower the interosseous muscles and cause digital hammering or clawing. There is also possible associated adductovarus of the 4th and 5th toes because the quadratus plantae loses its mechanical advantage.
Flexor stabilization
11. This deformity occurs with weak triceps surae, the deep posterior leg and lateral leg muscles try to compensate for lack of plantarflexion. In doing so, they create a high arched supinated foot and contracted digits. There is usually no adductovarus deformity of digits.
Flexor substitution
12. What is a thomas heel?
anteromedial extention made to the heel to provide additional support to the longitudinal arch and limit midstance pronation.
13. What is a cobra pad?
• a prefabricated type of orthotic providing arch support and off-weighting the heel.
• -Usually constructed out of felt and easily fitted into dress shoe.
14. When would you use a dancer pad?
• -To off-weight the 1st MT head
• -Indications are sesamoiditis or fractured sesamoid

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