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Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.
Kohlberg believed...and was able to demonstrate through studies...that people progressed in their moral reasoning (i.e., in their bases for ethical behavior) through a series of stages. He believed that there were six identifiable stages which could be more generally classified into three levels.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory holds that 'development' is influenced by several environmental systems. The theory identifies five environmental systems
He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge isinstead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
Wechsler is best known for his intelligence tests. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was developed firstin 1939 and then called the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. From these he derived the Wechsler IntelligenceScale for Children (WISC) in 1949 and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) in 1967
The goal of Lamaze is to increase a mother's confidence in her ability to give birth; classes help them understand how to cope with pain in ways that both facilitate labour and promote comfort, including focused breathing, movement and massage
Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas
Hall believed that the pre-adolescent child develops to its best when it is not forced to follow constraints, but rather to go through the stages of evolution freely.
He is a major proponent of the hereditarian position in the nature versus nurture debate, the position that concludesgenetics play a significant role in behavioral traits, such as intelligence and personality
Rousseau’s philosophy of education is not concerned with particular techniques of imparting information and concepts, but rather with developing the pupil’s character and moral sense, so that he may learn to practice self-mastery and remain virtuous even in the unnatural and imperfect society in which he will have to live.
The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by the eponymous Dr. VirginiaApgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarilyassess the health of newborn children immediately after birth
Alfred Binet (July 11, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who was the inventor of the first usableintelligence test, known at that time as the Binet test and today referred to as the IQ test
s a French obstetrician, best known for his 1975 book, Birth WithoutViolence, which popularized gentle birthing techniques, in particular, the practice of immersing newly-borninfants in a small tub of warm water — known as a "Leboyer bath" — to help ease the transition from the womb tothe outside world
His theory of identity achievement states that there are two distinct parts contributing to the achievement ofadolescent identity: a time of choosing or crisis, and a commitment
He proposed that children's thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are certain points at which it "takes off" and moves into completely new areas and capabilities
made the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (BNBAS)
done 2-3 days afetr birth and 9- 10 days after.
- response to stress
- ability to calm down
Maturational Theories (Biological Theories)
Emphasiszes internal or biological influence or development, including genetic programing
Behavior/Learning Theory and Social Learning
All behavior is learned. All as a result of enviornment influences. Generally, learning is by operant conditioning. Reward and punishment. Rewarded behavior will be repeated.
Social Learning: Behavior learned through modeling and vicarious reinforcement
Nature of the child mind is reflected in all his actions
When a child grows up