Child development

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  1. Bandura
    Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.
  2. Kohlberg
    Kohlberg believed...and was able to demonstrate through studies...that people progressed in their moral reasoning (i.e., in their bases for ethical behavior) through a series of stages. He believed that there were six identifiable stages which could be more generally classified into three levels.
  3. Bronfenbrenner
    Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory holds that 'development' is influenced by several environmental systems. The theory identifies five environmental systems
  4. Locke
    He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge isinstead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
  5. Wechsler
    Wechsler is best known for his intelligence tests. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was developed firstin 1939 and then called the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. From these he derived the Wechsler IntelligenceScale for Children (WISC) in 1949 and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) in 1967
  6. LaMaze
    The goal of Lamaze is to increase a mother's confidence in her ability to give birth; classes help them understand how to cope with pain in ways that both facilitate labour and promote comfort, including focused breathing, movement and massage
  7. Freud
    Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas
  8. Hall
    Hall believed that the pre-adolescent child develops to its best when it is not forced to follow constraints, but rather to go through the stages of evolution freely.
  9. Jensen
    He is a major proponent of the hereditarian position in the nature versus nurture debate, the position that concludesgenetics play a significant role in behavioral traits, such as intelligence and personality
  10. Rousseau
    Rousseau’s philosophy of education is not concerned with particular techniques of imparting information and concepts, but rather with developing the pupil’s character and moral sense, so that he may learn to practice self-mastery and remain virtuous even in the unnatural and imperfect society in which he will have to live.
  11. Apgar
    The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by the eponymous Dr. VirginiaApgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarilyassess the health of newborn children immediately after birth
  12. Binet
    Alfred Binet (July 11, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who was the inventor of the first usableintelligence test, known at that time as the Binet test and today referred to as the IQ test
  13. LeBoyer
    s a French obstetrician, best known for his 1975 book, Birth WithoutViolence[1], which popularized gentle birthing techniques, in particular, the practice of immersing newly-borninfants in a small tub of warm water — known as a "Leboyer bath" — to help ease the transition from the womb tothe outside world
  14. Marcia
    His theory of identity achievement states that there are two distinct parts contributing to the achievement ofadolescent identity: a time of choosing or crisis, and a commitment
  15. Piaget
    He proposed that children's thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are certain points at which it "takes off" and moves into completely new areas and capabilities
  16. Brazelton
    made the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (BNBAS)

    done 2-3 days afetr birth and 9- 10 days after.

    • Checks:
    • alertness
    • reflexes
    • response to stress
    • ability to calm down
  17. Maturational Theories (Biological Theories)
    Emphasiszes internal or biological influence or development, including genetic programing
  18. Behavior/Learning Theory and Social Learning
    All behavior is learned. All as a result of enviornment influences. Generally, learning is by operant conditioning. Reward and punishment. Rewarded behavior will be repeated.

    Social Learning: Behavior learned through modeling and vicarious reinforcement
  19. Cognitive
    Nature of the child mind is reflected in all his actions

    When a child grows up
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Child development
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