Prejudice is a negative attitude—they may not necessarily
act on the prejudice (discriminating). Focus on affect. Discrimination is a negative behavior. Though there is often a relationship, prejudice attitudes don’t necessary cause hostile behavior, and hostile behavior isn’t always
rooted in prejudice. stereotypes: This is a generalization about attributes of a group of people. An example is that
“professors are outgoing”. The problem is when these are overly generalized or just wrong.
Historical trends in prejudice and research findings:
In the 40s, Americans agreed in separate sanctions for
different races. By the 80s, 90 percent supported school integration. Today, the
question seems to be a nonissue. African American attitudes have also changed.
From the 50s through the 70s, black girls preferred black dolls, as opposed to
in the 40s when many held anti-black prejudices. Adult attitudes also changes
to view Blacks and Whites as similar in traits such as intelligence, laziness,
and dependability. People now also hold similar values. 9 in 10 today would
vote for a black man. 80 percent believe that in high school, we must learn
white and black history. However, racism is still existence- there were almost
8000 hate crimes in 2006, and Obama would have received much more support (6%)
if there had been no prejudice. Looking at how much progress, blacks tend to
compare today with an ideal world and see us as having little prejudice, where
whites tend to compare it to how it was in the past and see great progress.
Automatic processing of prejudice
In a study, 9 in 10 whites took longer to associate positive
words with African Americans. Consciously, they said they weren’t prejudice.
But these unconscious associations may only be indicative of cultural assumptions not prejudice.
But some studies show that these implicit biases can leak into behavior. For
example: in a Swedish study, the implicit bias against Arab Americans predicted
likelihood of not interviewing applicants with Muslim names. Or doctors have neglected to give drugs to
African Americans. In a video game, where the players could “shoot” the people
on screen- people were more likely to shoot the black person than the white.
Also, Australians were more ready to shoot a Muslim than anyone else. If we associate a group with
danger, faces from that group will capture our attention and trigger arousal.
When looking at people with guns, we are more likely to notice the gun when a
black person was holding it. So even if race doesn’t bias perception—it may
bias reaction…we’re more willing to “shoot” without evidence against them. Our
brain has specific areas dedicated to prejudicial thoughts. When we associate
an out-group with “disgust” when seeing pictures of that out-group, we elicit
brain activity in areas associated with disgust and avoidance. We use more
primitive, less conscious areas of the brain such as the amygdala with
Gender stereotypes and roles; their strength as contrasted
to racial stereotypes:
Strong gender stereotypes exist, and members of both genders
often agree upon them. Gender
stereotypes are much stronger than racial stereotypes. For example, both
men and women believed that women were more emotional. Are these
generalizations accurate? Penn State study found that the stereoptypes of