Cephalosporins

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jean
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12140
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Cephalosporins
Updated:
2011-03-02 22:38:10
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Pharm III test
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Cephalosporins, pharmacology nursing 2
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  1. List of Cephalosporins
    • First generation
    • second generation
    • third generation
    • fourth generation
  2. What is the drug interactions for Cephalosporins?
    • PCN & Tetracycline = less effectiveness of PCNs
    • PCN & Aminoglycoside = inactivates the Aminoglycosides
  3. What are you looking for with Cephalosporins?
    • ASSESS, ASSESS, ASSESS
    • Drug effectiveness
    • Adverse reactions
  4. What are the adverse reactins for Cephalosporins?
    • skin and mucus membranes dry
    • respiratory status
    • abdomen/GI effects
    • abnormal BUN & creatinine
    • Phlebitis
  5. Nursing Interventions of Cephalosporins
    • GET THE CULTURE
    • observe for reactions
    • have epinephrine on hand
    • give with water
    • monitor urine output
    • monitor for bleeding if dosage large
    • MONITOR WBC !!!
  6. What will you teach cleint taking Cephalosporins?
    • take full course, side effects, storage, s/s,
    • infection, take on empty stomach, 8 oz water,
    • no fruit juices, milk or soda
  7. What will you assess for with Cephalosporins?
    • Infection
    • superinfection
    • teaching effectiveness (teach back)
  8. Someone that is allergic to Cephalosporins is most likely to be allergic to ______?
    PCN
  9. Do cephalosporins inhibit _______ _________ _________
    Inhibit cell wall synthesis
  10. Cephalosporins are structurally and pharmacologically related to ______
    PCN
  11. With Cephalosporins the spectrum of coverage broadens with ________
    each generation
  12. How are the Cephalosporins divided?
    into groups according to their antimicrobial activity
  13. History of Cephalosporins
    • introduced clinically in 1960s
    • similar to PCN in structure and activity
    • 4 generations each with its own spectrum of activity
  14. First generation Cephalosporins - names and how given
    • cefazolin (Ancef & Kefzol) - IV & PO
    • cephalexin (Keftab & Keflex)- PO
  15. what are Cephalosporins used for?
    • surgical prophylaxis
    • URIs
    • otis media
    • strep & staph
  16. What is mechanism of action for Cephalosporins?
    • Both bacteriostatic and bactericidal
    • Depends on dose and drug
    • Interferes with cell wall synthesis
    • Cell swells and ruptures from osmotic pressure inside cell
  17. Pharmacokenetics of Cephalosporins
    Well absorbed from GI tract
  18. Metabolized in liver
    • excreted by kidneys
    • use caution in pregnancy and laction
    • cross into breast milk
  19. What happens to clients with impaired renal and liver function?
    alters drug matabolism
  20. Adverse effects of Cephalosporins
    • Similar to PCN
    • Allergic reactions most common
    • Headache, anal/genital itching
    • Skin rash common
    • GI Distress..pseudomembranous colitis
    • C-diff often reported with ceph’s
    • Nephrotoxicity in early ceph generations
    • Not so much in the newer drugs
  21. Major distinctions of the 1st generation Cephalosporin
    • most effective against gram positive organisms
    • distroyed by beta-lactamase
  22. Major distinctions of the 2nd generation Cephalosporin
    • more potent, more resistant to beta-lactamase
    • broader spectrum against gram negative organisms than 1st generation ceph's
  23. Major distinctions of the 3rd generation Cephalosporin
    • longer duration of action than 2nd
    • even broader spectrum against gram negative
    • resistance to beta-lactamase
  24. 3rd generation Ceph drug of choice
    • Pseudomonas
    • Salmonella
    • Less effective against gram positive
  25. Major distinctions of 4th generation Cephalosporin
    • effective in treating septicemia
    • effective against many strains of gram negative
    • e-coli
    • klebsiella
    • streptococci
    • staphyloccus....certain strains

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