Card Set Information
Pharm III test
Cephalosporins, pharmacology nursing 2
List of Cephalosporins
What is the drug interactions for Cephalosporins?
PCN & Tetracycline = less effectiveness of PCNs
PCN & Aminoglycoside = inactivates the Aminoglycosides
What are you looking for with Cephalosporins?
ASSESS, ASSESS, ASSESS
What are the adverse reactins for Cephalosporins?
skin and mucus membranes dry
abnormal BUN & creatinine
Nursing Interventions of Cephalosporins
GET THE CULTURE
observe for reactions
have epinephrine on hand
give with water
monitor urine output
monitor for bleeding if dosage large
MONITOR WBC !!!
What will you teach cleint taking Cephalosporins?
take full course, side effects, storage, s/s,
infection, take on empty stomach, 8 oz water,
no fruit juices, milk or soda
What will you assess for with Cephalosporins?
teaching effectiveness (teach back)
Someone that is allergic to Cephalosporins is most likely to be allergic to ______?
Do cephalosporins inhibit _______ _________ _________
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
Cephalosporins are structurally and pharmacologically related to ______
With Cephalosporins the spectrum of coverage broadens with ________
How are the Cephalosporins divided?
into groups according to their antimicrobial activity
History of Cephalosporins
introduced clinically in 1960s
similar to PCN in structure and activity
4 generations each with its own spectrum of activity
First generation Cephalosporins - names and how given
cefazolin (Ancef & Kefzol) - IV & PO
cephalexin (Keftab & Keflex)- PO
what are Cephalosporins used for?
strep & staph
What is mechanism of action for Cephalosporins?
Both bacteriostatic and bactericidal
Depends on dose and drug
Interferes with cell wall synthesis
Cell swells and ruptures from osmotic pressure inside cell
Pharmacokenetics of Cephalosporins
Well absorbed from GI tract
Metabolized in liver
excreted by kidneys
use caution in pregnancy and laction
cross into breast milk
What happens to clients with impaired renal and liver function?
alters drug matabolism
Adverse effects of Cephalosporins
Similar to PCN
Allergic reactions most common
Headache, anal/genital itching
Skin rash common
GI Distress..pseudomembranous colitis
C-diff often reported with ceph’s
Nephrotoxicity in early ceph generations
Not so much in the newer drugs
Major distinctions of the 1st generation Cephalosporin
most effective against gram positive organisms
distroyed by beta-lactamase
Major distinctions of the 2nd generation Cephalosporin
more potent, more resistant to beta-lactamase
broader spectrum against gram negative organisms than 1st generation ceph's
Major distinctions of the 3rd generation Cephalosporin
longer duration of action than 2nd
even broader spectrum against gram negative
resistance to beta-lactamase
3rd generation Ceph drug of choice
Less effective against gram positive
Major distinctions of 4th generation Cephalosporin
effective in treating septicemia
effective against many strains of gram negative