9-12

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StudyNerd
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121402
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9-12
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2011-12-07 00:01:42
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chapters 9-12
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  1. biological evolution
    A change in the characteristics of a population of organisms that occurs over the course of generations
  2. Species
    a group of individuals that can breed together and produce fertile offspring
  3. natural selection
    process by which populations adapt to a changing environment
  4. state the theory of evolution
    all species present on earth today are descendents of a single common ancestor and all species represent the product of millions of years of accumulated microevolutionary changes
  5. What did Lamrack believe?
    inheritance of aquired characteristics
  6. name biological classifications from broadest to narrowest
    • Domain
    • kingdom
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    • species
  7. binomial
    2 part name of species - latin
  8. vestigal traits
    non-functioning features a common ancestor had use of
  9. 7 evidences for evolution
    • fossil record
    • vestigal traits
    • anatomical similarities
    • embryonic development
    • DNA
    • biological classifications
    • biography
  10. antibiotics
    chemical that kills or disables bacteria
  11. antibiotic-resistant
    one that can't be cured by standard antibiotics
  12. 4 inferences of natural selection
    • individuals of population vary
    • some variation passed to offspring
    • populations produce more offspring than will survive
    • survival and reproduction are not random
  13. darwin inferred that natural selection causes evolution
    True
  14. artificial selection
    humans delibrately control survival and reproduction
  15. 3 common misconceptions about natural selection
    • extinct species don't evolve
    • it doesn't lead to ideal organism
    • adapts to current environment
  16. directional selection
    populations traits change in a more faborable selection
  17. stabilizing selection
    extreme varients in a population are selected against traits of the population that stay the same
  18. 3 strategies used to stop drug resistance
    • combination drug therapy
    • long term treatment maintenance
    • no drugs for viral maintenance
  19. species
    category in linean classification system
  20. biological species concept
    relies on reproductive isolation
  21. prefertilization barriers of reproductive isolation
    • habitat isolation
    • behavioral
    • mechanical
    • temporal
    • gamete
  22. postfertilization barriers
    • hybrid inviability
    • hybrid sterility
  23. allopatric
    populations distanced by geographic barriers
  24. polyploidy
    chromosome numbers byond the diploid number
  25. morphological species concept
    species that look alike
  26. Hardy-Weinberg theorem describes:
    • allele frequencies will remain stable if
    • no mutation,
    • no genetic drift,
    • no natural selection,
    • no gene flow
    • no random mating
  27. Genetic Drift
    Change in Allele frequency due to chance
  28. founder effect
    in an isolated population, the same genes get used over and over
  29. bottleneck effect
    dramatic but short-lived reduction in population
  30. assertive mating
    non-random mating - prefer someone like self
  31. biodivirsity
    variety within and among living species
  32. geologic periods
    life's history subdivided into a time period defined by a set of fossils
  33. 4 time periods
    • Cenozoic
    • Mesozoic
    • Paleozoic
    • pre-cambrian
  34. 4 eukaryotic kingdoms
    • plantae
    • animalia
    • fungi
    • protista
  35. 3 domains
    • Eukaryotic
    • bacteria
    • archaea
  36. biological classification
    the task of classifying life into groups according to characteristics
  37. evolutionary classification
    classifying organisms according to common ancestry of species
  38. more than half the antibiotic drugs we use are derived from bacteria
    true
  39. endosymbiotic theory
    mitochondria and cloroplasts descended from bacteria that took up residence inside larger primitive eykaryotes
  40. animals
    multicellular organisms that make their living by ingesting orther organisms and are motile

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