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  1. What type of neurotransmitter will parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release?
  2. What class of receptor is on the target tissue within the parasympathetic division?
    muscarinic receptor
  3. What happens when nicotonic receptors are activated?
    excitatory effects; excites postganglionic neuron; opens Na+ channels; neuron depolarizes; also binds nicotine
  4. What happens when muscarinic receptors are activated?
    it can be excitatory or inhibitory; effects K+ permeability; effects target tissue permeability to k+; increase K+ permeability, then more K+ leaves tissue; decrease K+ permeability, then less K+ leaves tissue
  5. What are the effects of parasympathetic activation
    • 1. constriction of airways
    • 2. constriction of pupils
    • 3. decreased metabolic rate
    • 4. decrease in heart rate and bp
    • 5. increase in smooth muscle contraction
    • 6. increase in activity in urinary system
    • 7. increase blood flow to reproductive organs
    • 8. increase in nutrient absorption
    • 9. increase in secretion in digestive glands
  6. Where will sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate?
    originate at T1-L2
  7. Are sympathetic preganglionic fibers long or short?
  8. What are the 3 major classes of sympathetic ganglia?
    • 1. sympathetic chain ganglia
    • 2. collateral ganglia
    • 3. adrenal medulla
  9. How many of eacy type of ganglia are found within the sympathetic chain?
    3 cervical, 10-12 thoracic, 4-5 lumbar, 4-5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
  10. What areas of the body will the sympathetic chain innervate?
    thoracic cavity and cutaneous glands
  11. What effect does the innervation of the thoracic cavity have?
    increases B.P., increases heart rate, increases force of contraction, increases rate of respiration
  12. What effect does the innervation of the cutaneous glands have?
    increases secretion (causes increase in sweating)
  13. What are the 3 collateral ganglia?
    • 1. celiac ganglia
    • -innervates stomach, gallbladder, liver, pancreas & spleen
    • 2. superior mesenteric ganglia
    • -innervates small intestine & proximal 2/3 of large intestine
    • 3. inferior mesenteric ganglia
    • -innervates 1/3 of large intestine, kidney, bladder, reproductive organs
  14. How does neurotransmitter release within the adrenal medulla differ from other two?
    provides bodywide response; allows for sympathetic activation everywhere, instead of just one or two tissues
  15. Will sympathetic postganglionic fibers be long or short?
  16. What is the sympathetic division also known as?
    thoracolumbar division
  17. What are the functions of the alpha receptors?
    • 1. alpha1 increases release of ca2+ from sarcolemmic reticulum; increases smooth muscle contraction
    • (ex: pupil dilation)
    • 2. alpha2 lowers cAMP levels, usually an inhibitory effect
    • -cyclicAMP, 2nd messenger, causes increase of enzyme activity and/or depolarization
    • -decrease in cAMP will decrease enzyme activity and decrease depolarization
  18. What are the functions of each class of beta receptor?
    • 1. Beta1: increase HR, increase force of contraction, increased metabolic rate, increase lipolysis (fat breakdown), beta blockers effect; decrease BP
    • 2. Beta2: albuteral beta2 agonist; airway dilation; drug used for asthma; relaxation of smooth muscles(airways, digestive & urinary tracts); blood vessel dilation; increase diameter, increase in digestive and urinary tracts
    • 3. Beta3: only found in adipose tissue; increases fat breakdown
  19. What type of receptor is on the sympathetic postganglionic neurons?
    nicotonic receptor
  20. What type of neurotransmitter will sympathetic postganglionic neurons release?
  21. What class of receptor is on the target tissue within the sympathetic division?
    adrenergic receptors
  22. What are the effects of sympathetic activation?
    • 1. Dilation of pupils
    • 2. Increased heart rate and BP
    • 3. Dilation of respiratory passages
    • 4. Increased sweating
    • 5. Increased rate of respiration
    • 6. Decreased rate of digestion
    • 7. Decreased urinary activities
    • 8. Decreased blood flow to reproductive organs
    • 9. Increased metabolic rate
    • 10. Increased mental alertness
  23. Why is dual innervation important?
    opposing effects from the two systems innervate most of the body tissues
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