Micro Final

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  1. Protects from the microbs with the layers of
    karatinzed skin
  2. 5 Protective mechanisms of the skin:
    • Epidermis
    • Skin is dry
    • Outer layer of skin is continually sloughing off
    • pH of skin is acidic (3-5)
    • lysozyme and perspiration
  3. Secreted by skin and is the protective oily-film on the skin
  4. Tear ducts that washes lateral to medial
    Lacrimal glands
  5. Helps dilute bacteria, helps prevent colonization and contains some lysozymes for mouth protection
  6. Secretions in GI tract help trap bacteria, slowing it down
  7. Bacterial will enter sometimes and vaginalarea is more acidic for bacteria protection
    Urine secretions
  8. Like hydrochloric acid, enzymes and mucus protects from bacteria
    Gastric Juices
  9. Act of one cell eating debris or bacteria, engulf with the purpose of neutralizing
  10. Gets blamed for peptic ulcers, neutralizes stomach acid
    Helacbacteor pylory (H. Pylory)
  11. In the blood there is about _____ RBC
    5 million
  12. In the blood there is about _____ WBC
    5-10 thousand

  13. First responders in bacterial infections,
    involved with phagocytosis
    Represent 70% of WBC
  14. Involved with allergic reaction and produce histamine
    Represent 1% of WBC
  15. Produce toxic protein that will combat parasites and do some phagocytosis
    mildly involved with allergic reactions BUT DO NOT produce histamine
    Represent 2-4%
  16. After they leave the blood/circulatory system
    they mature into a macrophage and are most phagocyitic
    located in the lymphatic system or migrate to other areas of the body
    Represent 3-8% WBC
    Macrophage are involved in the last stages of bacterial infections, viral and fungal infections, they do the clean-up work

  17. Produced in red bone marrow and many migrate
    to the lymph tissue
    Located in: spleen, thymus,
    tonsils, and appendix, peyers patches in the stomach &
    lymph nodes.
    Deal with worms, cancer cells and viruse
    Represent 20-25%WBC
    Responsible for antibody
    production and T-cell production
  18. 2 Types of Macrophages
    • Fixed
    • Wandering
  19. Stationary, Kupffer-in liver, Alveoli-in lungs, Microgilia-nerve system
  20. Gathering to site of infection
  21. 4 Stages of phagocytosis
    • Chemo-taxis
    • Addherance
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
  22. Chemical attraction of the phagocytes to the microbes by antibody or compliment
  23. attach to microbes for the process of opsonization
  24. Has lipase to break down DNA
  25. Happens when lysosomes attach to the phagosomes
  26. Sac of phagocyte that catches the bacteria, pumps protons (H+) and drops the pH and makes it more acidic, severing the cell wall and ingesting bacteria
  27. Made in phagocyte to digest bacteria with several molecules that will work to destroy bacteria
  28. When the phagosome merges with the lysosome
  29. After the bacteria is digested the lysosome contains
    waste and debris called
    residual body
  30. molecule that is too small to create an allergic reaction (must be bigger than 10,000 molecular weight to effect the body)
  31. Caused by damage to body tissues
    • Inflamation
    • redness, swelling and heat
  32. Positive to inflammation:
    • Help destroy foreign agents
    • Confines the agent
    • Helps repair tissue damage
  33. Molecules that float around in blood all cause
    vasodilatation (increases the permiablilty so that these molecules can get out into the system)
    Cytokines, Fibrigen & Kynins
  34. Gets released by Mast cells and Basophils also causes vasodilatation
  35. Released by damaged tissue after being cut, intensifies the affect of histamine and causes vasodilation
  36. Release by mast cells and basophils, help phagocytes attach to the microb (Opsonin)
  37. Causes vessels to be more permeable and delivers clotting agents to damages tissues
  38. neutrophils and monocytes to stick to blood vessel walls
  39. During swelling blood vessels become
    More permiable
  40. Phagocytes squeeze between between cells to get
    to the damaged or effected area
    Diapedese or imagration
  41. Neutrophils go first followed by the ______ . Once the _________ are out of the circylatory system they become .When they die they become ____ .
    • monocytes (x2)
    • macrophages
    • puss
  42. What slows down phagocytosis
    • Transplant drugs
    • poor diet
    • chemo and radiation
  43. When you have damaged tissue and your body repairs from basal layer (new cells produced from skin)
  44. Stroma repair
    scar tissue
  45. Antigens in the body that provoke an immune response
  46. Bring fever down take
  47. Developed by exposure to an antigen in natural way
    Ex. Chicken pox
    Natural Active
  48. Exposure by immunization or vaccine
    Ex. mesals mumps and rubella
    Artificial Active
  49. Getting antibodies in a natural way
    Ex. Mother's milk, placenta
    Natural Passive
  50. Acquiring antibodies in an artificial way
    Ex. Gamma globulin shot
    Artificial Passive
  51. Antibodies are also know as
  52. Antibodies are found in the serum and are called
  53. Humeral immunity
    • Also known as antibody mediated immunity
    • Produced by B-Lymphocytes (B-Cells)
    • Found in blood, lymph and mucus
  54. The body makes about ______ lymphocytes a day
    100 million
  55. Cell mediated immunity
    • involves T-Lymphocytes or T-Cells
    • T-cells fight against foreign tissue
    • T-cells fight against viruses, fungi, bacteria,
    • protozoa, helment/worms and cancer cells
  56. **T-cells that communicate with WBC**
  57. Can only interact with one single or one type of antigen which must be displayed on the cells surface
  58. -most are macrophages and come from monocytes
    -manufactures antigen of virus and manufactures and antigen on the surface to tell the immune system to help fight it
    Antigen presenting cells: (APC)
  59. are part of a major host compatibility complex (MHC) on each cell
    Self molecules
  60. MHC makes each self molecule
    specific to a person
  61. Th1 causes:
    • type of helper cell
    • produce cytokines that will activate cells for cell mediated immunity
  62. TH2 causes:
    B-lymphocytes to stimulate production of eocenophils and to produce 2 types of antibodies IgM & IgG
  63. Destroy target cells on contact
    Cytotoxic T-cells
  64. Perforates or pokes a pore in the target cell, which causes the target cell to lysis or come apart.
  65. Associated with allergic reactions that are delayed
    Delay hypersensitivity T-cells (TD)
  66. Turn off the immune response when antigen is no longer present
    Supressor T-Cells

  67. Destroy virus or virus infected cells and tumor cells, they also go after large parasites
    Natural Killer Cells
  68. -Most abundant in the blood represents about 80% of antibodies circulating in the blood
  69. Stay in the blood, First responders
  70. -Most abundant in the entire body, most common in bodily secretions ex. breast milk, tears saliva and mucus
    -Prevent attachment of microbes to the mucosal surface because they make it so microbes can’t stick
  71. Present in the colostrum, when female gives birth mother produces colostrums the first
    few days.
  72. Bind to mast cells and basophills and causes release of histamine to help with allergic reactions
  73. antigenic determinant sites notifies that a microb doesn’t belong
  74. Mack attach
    Membrane attack complex involves C6-C9
  75. A substance that binds to foreign microorganisms or cells, making them more susceptible to phagocytosis.
  76. Involves pair of antibodies that bind with antigen which activates C1
    Classical pathway
  77. Doesn't need antibodies, involves BDP
    Alternative pathway
  78. -macrophages ingest/digest, release chemicals that produce lectin
    -Type 1 of lectin is called MBL (Manos binding lectin)
    Lectin Pathway
  79. MBL or manos binding lectin is
    type of sugar molecule
  80. Artificially driven
  81. When most people have been immunized then those that aren’t immunized are protected from getting virus
    Hurd immunity
  82. Dead virus in vaccine
    Ex. Polio
    Inactivated whole agent vaccine
  83. Inactivated toxins and follow up with booster shots
    Ex. Tetanus
    Toxoid shot
  84. Uses only the antigenic fragment, bugs can’t multiply
    Ex. Hep B
    Subunit vaccines
  85. For children, because children’s immune system
    doesn’t respond to the polysaccharide antigens
    Ex. Diptheria
    Conjugated vaccine
  86. Allergic reaction person has been sensitized by previous exposure to the antigen or allergen
    Hyper-sensitivity reaction
  87. ***Allergen is always antigen- antigen is not always an allergen
  88. 4 Types of allergic reaction
    • Anaphylactic reaction
    • Cytotoxic Reaction
    • Immune complex reactions
    • Cell mediated reactions
  89. -usually occurs within 2-30 min
    -has to have a previous exposure to have a reaction the second time
    -Involves IgE, basophiles and mast cells
    -contain mediator chemicals that turns them on and causes the basophiles to degranulate/dumps Ex. causes the reaction such as vasodilatation, erythema---redness, decreases smooth muscle contraction which affects the lungs and breathing
    Anaphylactic reaction
  90. -leukotrens—decrease smooth muscle contraction -prostaglandulins--- mucus
    -production also causing vasodilatation and makes capillaries more permeable
    (making the holes bigger—no longer semi-permeable)
    Systemic anaphylactic shock
  91. usually lack an enzyme to break down an aspect to the food
    Food intollarance
  92. 8 Different foods responsible for allergies:
    • Milk
    • Soy
    • Fish
    • Wheat
    • Peas
    • Eggs
    • Peanuts
    • Tree-grown nuts
  93. Under the skin, Homiopathithically (sublingual) to activate the IgG bodies instead of the IgE
  94. Blood transfusion reactions
    Cytotoxic Reaction
  95. -Involves IgG, antibodies are working against soluble antigens circulating in the blood.
    -Most responsible for plaque of the arteries caused by leaky gut syndrome (build up of candidia)
    Immune complex reactions
  96. Occurs within a day or so, because the T-cells have to migrate to the infected area and accumulate there
    Ex. TB
    Cell mediated reactions
  97. An inappropriate response to self antigens which should be self markers
    Autoimmune disease
  98. Virus involved, virus has similarities to the self protein markers
    Ex. Hep C
    Type 1 Autoimmunity
  99. Involves antibodies to the self surface antigens
    Ex. graves disease
    Type 2 Cytotoxic autoimmunity
  100. antibodies develop to parts that will breakdown organelles
    Ex. Systemic lupus, rheumatoid
    arthritis---IgM & IgG & complement are deposited into the joints IgM
    and IgG bind to joints (Test rH factors)
    Type 3 Autoimmunity
  101. T-cells and macrophages attacking the myelin sheath that coats the nerves causing faster nerve conduction
    Ex. Multiple Sclerosis, Hashimoto's Type 1 Diabetes
    Type 4 Cell mediated
  102. Area where the antibodies won't attack the tissue
    Ex.Cornea transplant
    Privileged sites
  103. Tissue that body won't attack normally
    Ex. Pig heart valve
    Privileged tissue
  104. use patients cell to culture sheets of new skin
  105. Tissue or organs from identical twins
  106. donor that isn’t identical such as a sibling
  107. Tissue or organs from animals
  108. Lowered cell mediated response caused by drugs, cancers or other microbes
  109. Name of HIV virus is the
  110. Structure of HIV is
    2 identical RNA strands
  111. HIV has an enzyme called
    Reverse transcriptase
  112. HIV has _______ with spikes—which makes it
    more successful
    phospholipid envelope
  113. Once infected with HIV, the lentivirus will attach to the
    CD4 on the T-cells
  114. Lentivirus in hiding is called
  115. Different groups or types of HIV virus is divided into
  116. Characteristics of virus
    • Mutating rapidly
    • Will mutate daily
    • Producing itself in different versions
    • Person can have 1 million variants of the HIV virus an still have no symptoms
  117. In the U.S. about 90% of population with AIDS are most commonly infected with
    HIV 1 clade B
  118. South Africa population infected with
    HIV 1 clade C
  119. Asia population infected with
    HIV 1 Clade E
  120. West Africa population infected with
    HIV 2
  121. Hiv virus in their body for some time, may be asymptomatic, persistent swollen lymph nodes
    Category A
  122. Persistent infections by Candida—thrush,
    mouth throat, vaginal yeast infections, shingles showing up and harry leukoplakia (white patches on oral mucosa)
    Category B
  123. -Clinical AIDS
    -normal CD4 T- cell count is 800-1,000 T-Cells per millimeter cubed
    -T-cell count below 200, Effecting: throat, trachea,
    lungs, bronchiole, compromised host causing tuberculosis and constantly fighting off pneumonia, eye infections, toxoplasmosis of the brain, Kaposi’s
    sarcoma (cancer in mouth caused by herpes virus)
    Category C
  124. HIV is NOT synomous with AIDS
  125. In order to get AIDS it requires direct contact with
    bodily fluids
  126. Bodily fluids: infection of AIDS
    • Saliva has about 1 virus per ml
    • Semen has about 10-50 viruses per ml
    • Blood contains about 1,000-100,000 viruses per ml
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Micro Final

Micro Final
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