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Tilman Riemenschneider. Altarpiece of the Holy Blood. Limewood. Northern Renaissance . Annunciation scene. Highly decorative. Softness to the images. Center pieces are relief carvings. "Entry Into Jerusalem" and "agony in the Garden" Deep enough carving to cast shadows. Two scenes from passion of Christ. The 3D scene is the Last Supper. Figures carved in the round, then attached via pegs. Base of altar is the predella
- Dürer. Self-Portrait. Oil on Panel. Northern Renaissance. Rising status and evaluation of self as an individual. Audience inteded to be humanists-- intellectual revived in classical text/learning. Believe in perfecting man. German artists were aware of Italy. Obsessed with proportions.
- Brueghel the Elder. Hunters in the Snow.
- Oil on panel. Northern Renaissance. One of a series of six panels. They were very large. Bought to be hung in home by a merchant. Mountains do not fit the buildings which are Duthc/ Flemish. Atmospheric perspective-- haziness and blue-grey color in distance. Others in the series: Gloomy Day, Haymakers
Filippo Brunelleschi. Dome of Florence Cathedral. Florence, Italy. Italian Renaissance.Filippo engineers a dome of architectual feat. New scaffolding that uses less wood. Double shelled dome, that consisted of an inner and outer layer. Inner made of stone. Outer made of bricks in herring bone pattern, giving greater stability. Space between the layers so there was less weight and a space for repair. Uses ribs for support. Lantern on top holds everything in place.
- Michelozzo di Bartolomeo. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence. Italian Renaissance. Hired by Medici family to design their home. They were a banking family who used floren as currency. Built across from Church of San Lorrenzo, their daily church. Demolished 20 smaller homes in order to build it. Bottom story is where the business was conducted. Rustication of bottom story. Piano nobile was 2nd story where the family lived. Top story- kitchen and servant quarters. Colosseum was sort of an inspiration. Coat of arms signifies the house is Medici
Donatello. David. Bronze. Italian Renaissance Lifesize. Constructed through lost wax casting. Draws on the story of David and Goliath. Helps envoke dignity, civic pride. He wears a shepherd's hat because he was a shepherd boy. Holding the stone he shot at Goliath with. Standing on decaptitated head of Goliath. Elegant, soft, contrapposto pose reminds us of his young age.
- Masaccio. Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the
- Evangelist, and Donors. Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence.Italian Renaissance C. 1425-1428. Fresco. Linear perspective has a single vanishing point. Organizes space so that your
- eye rests on and sort of at that single vanishing point. Creates a stable composition that way. The way you perceive and understand an object using linear perspective is to look for diagonal lines, often created by
- architectural forms. In this image, the vanishing point is at the base of the crucifix. With linear perspective, you often have the use of foreshortening. This is a way of depicting objects and figures at a sort of 90 degree angle
- from the fictive end of the picture to suggest recession into space. The face of the Virgin Mary is rendered with foreshortening, her chin and neck looks like it’s sort of going backwards into the picture. Renewed interest in the
- classical form because of the architecture framing the figures—barrel vaulted space, coffers lining vault, pilasters, columns with ionic capitals, takes a form of triumphal arch. Repetition and symmetry—use of red and blue, sort of mirrored image. Trinity because we see God the Father, dove of the holy spirit, and then Christ himself. Two figures outside are donor portraits; identified as Domenico Lenzi because the tombstone on front of it has that name on it.” I was once what you are and you will become what I am now” transience of life, momento mori (LATIN!!! Remember the dead/ of death)
- Botticelli. Primavera. 1492. Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici. Semiramide d”Aprriano. Italian Renaissance. Spalliera. Image of love and fidelity. That theme is created through
- mythological figures, which is tied to a renewed interest to classicism. Proceeds from right to left. Winged God Zephyr flies in trying to capture Cloris. She avoids being capture by turning into Primavera, which means Spring.
- In center is Venus, Goddess of Love, attended by the three graces who dance in a circle. Far left is Mercury, messenger of the Gods, dispelling the bad
- weather for an eternal spring, a Garden of love, ruled over by Venus in the center. Cupid flying above tells us that she is certainly Venus. Inclusion of orange trees may be a way to reference the Medici coat of arms. This painting was placed in the bedroom of Lorenzo, which reinforces the marital connection between his scene and the wedding of Lorenzo and Semiramide. It has been proposed that her facial features invoke the facial features of Semiramide, but that is hard to prove. She is constant in her fidelity and her beauty reflects her inner
- moral purity—related to Neo-Platonic thought, ideas based on Plato, which were current in the elite and court cultures of 15th c. Was hung at or above eye level, or shoulder level “spalliera.”
- Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper (refectory) Church of Santa Maria della Grazia, Milan. Milan. Italian Renaissance. Tempera and oil on plaster. 1495-98. He embodies the idea of a Renaissance man, because he is a great painter, sculptor, and craftsmen, but also interested in science,
- math, and anatomy. Leonardo is also highly experimental as an artist; took him a long time to finish a work. Monks had to sort of force him to finish painting it. Since he paitned it as a fresco it sort of peels and flakes in his lifetime because oil and water used together which don’t mix well. Leonardo was asked to come back and repaint
- it, which is why it’s in such bad shape today. Diagonal lines of wall create vanishing point just above head of Christ, and coffers on ceiling also lead to it. The “lit” area behind him with the landscape also helps to frame him and draw your attention to his face
- Michelangelo, David. Italian Renaissance.1501-04. Michelangelo born and raised in Florence. Began early career there. Thought of himself as a sculptor above all, but he was also a painter and architect. Worked for Medici, went to school
- with some of them. Hired by various Popes to work on different projects in Rome. His most famous sculpture is the statue of the David. Carved in marble. Comissioned to be placed as part of various sculptures that would appear on the façade of Florence Cathedral. When he
- finished the sculpture it was considered so good and so admired that it was just set up in the square in front of the Plazzo de la Signoriainstead instead. It is considered an emblem of the city of Florence. Florentines often thought of themselves as underdogs, always able to beat worthy adversaries, and able to overcome external threats of invasion. Rock in one hand and sling shot in the other which identifies him as David. Donatellos sculpture has severed head of Goliath, whereas this one does not. This is because he looks ready to go into battle, hasn’t yet
- taken down Goliath. Suggests determination. Carved eyebrows so that they project a little bit more. Idealized
- form, contrapposto pose.
- Michelangelo. Creation of Adam Sistine Chapel. Italian Renaissance. Michelangelo given free rein to paint ceiling, It depicts beginning of world as described in Book of Genesis. Divided ceiling into sections. Know
- which end he started on because figures small on one end, and get bigger because he realized he needed to make the figures bigger in order for viewer to see them from the floor. Completed in 4 years. He even wrote a poem about it and drew himself painting the ceiling. Built scaffolding so he could lie up there at the ceiling to paint; physically demanding paint job because he's working directly against gravity!
Titian, Venus of Urbino. Italian Renaissance. 1538. Oil on panel. Titian known for nude paintings.Titian has domesticated Venus by moving her to an indoor setting, engaging her with the viewer, and making her sensuality explicit. the painting is unapologetically erotic. In the near background is a dog, often a symbol of fidelity. The painting was commissioned by Guidobaldo II della Rovere, the Duke of Urbino, possibly to celebrate his 1534 marriage. Brown tint to her skin makes her look dirty.
Pontormo. Deposition. Oil on Panel. Mannerism. The Deposition from the Cross is an altarpiece by the Italian Renaissance painter Jacopo Pontormo, completed in 1528. It is broadly considered to be the artist's surviving masterpiece. Painted in oil on wood, The Deposition is located above the altar of the Capponi Chapel at the church of Santa Felicita, in Florence.Pontormo's undulating mannerist contortions have been interpreted as intending to express apoplectic and uncontrolled spasms of melancholy. e rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in order to create works which portrayed the social, religious and scientific change of that difficult time of the XVI century.
Bernini. St. Theresa in Ecstasy. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome, Italy. Southern Baroque. Given the sexualized imagery of St. Teresa's written account of the experience, some critics have seen in the statue a depiction of physical orgasm.
- Pietro da Cortona. The Glorification of Urban
- VIII. Palazzo Barberini. Rome, Italy. Fresco. Southern Baroque. It is the largest private ceiling painting in Rome. The entire composition was executed as one continuous painting. The subject is the apotheosis of Pope Urban VIII, a new and influential idea at the time. It is based on a poem by Francesco Bracciolini (Enggass 103) containing many episodes which are subordinate to the whole epic composition. Pietro did not intend for the view to see it all at once. Besides an apotheosis, this is an allegory of Divine Providence. It is believed and accepted that the pope was elected through Divine Providence
- Caravaggio. Entombment. Oil on Canvas. Southern
- Baroque. The desent from the cross of the corpse and the entombment are actually secondary to the Mourning of Mary which is the focal point of the lamentation. Nothing distinguished Caravaggio's history paintings more strongly from the art of the Renaissance. tenebroso—which means dark style. Caravaggio painted this scene as though it was happening in the black of night with almost a spot-light effect on the figures than his refusal to portray the human individual as sublime, beautiful and heroic. His figures are bowed, bent, cowering, reclining or stooped. The self confident and the statuesque have been replaced by humility and subjection. Everything is located very much in the foreground of the painting, very close to us in fact. Look at Christ's body—its so close we feel like we can touch it. And look at the ledge of the tomb, it is foreshortened and so it juts out into our space.
- Artemesia Gentileschi. Judith Slaying Holofernes. Southern Baroque. Oil on Canvas. Southern Baroque In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community, she was the first female painter to become a member of the Academia di Arte del Disegno in Florence. She often depicted biblical scenes, and scenes of women in strenght an suffering. The work shows an apocryphascene from the Old Testament Book of Judith which details the delivery of Israel from the Assyrian generalHolofernes. In this scene, Holofernes has been seduced by Judith, who along with her maidservant behead the general after he has fallen
- asleep drunk.
- Jacob van Ruisdael. Landscape with a View of Haarlem. Oil on Canvas. Northern Baroque. Most
- of his works are landscapes. Vertical composition with much of the scene given over to the large expanse of sky. The horizon is in the bottom third of the composition, and what you can see along it is a city scape. Buildings recognizable as city of Haarlem. Foreground we have a village of houses in close proximity to Haarlem, with a number of tiny little figures and long white strips, that are actually pieces of linen, to be bleached to pristine white
- color. Haarlem was well known for its breweries and for linen bleaching. Two most profitable industries for the city. Bleach linen by bathing it in buttermilk, set on grass, and let sun bleach it white. The appeal of this landscape, probably bought by someone living in Haarlem, is it’s a celebration of civic pride and industry. Because of the large expanse of sky, also a sortof meditative theme, passage of time as sunlight moves across the clouds. It’s actually mostly gloomy and cloudy most of the time in the Netherlands, so the golden light on the land is sort of fictionized by artist.
- Willem Kalf. Still Life with Chinese Bowl and Nautilus Cup. 1662. Oil on Canvas. Northern Baroque. Dark background with number of objects positioned on marble table. Objects on table positioned in foreground for sense of immediacy for viewer. Tall Venetian glass with red wine in it. Nautilus shell with elaborate shell. Ming vase with figural decoration on it. Peeled. Fruit. Another glass of wine to right, then
- elaborate oriental carpet draped over the table. Still life depicts a number of imported valuable objects. Emphasis on wealth and prosperity attached to trade,
- a significant feature of Dutch culture. They were the greatest ship builders of the time. Only country allowed to trade and import with Japan. Also allowed to trade with China. Dutch est. East India trading company, and was one of the largest trading ventures of its time. Also est. West India Co. which was
- trading in colonized places like America (New York was once called New Netherlands) as well as with Africa. Wine is also an imported object. Novelis
- shell signalizes wealth and trade and prosperity. May have moralizing or didactic elements, maybe about transience of life, because the fruit will decay. Food is almost always touched or bitten, or peeled, or cut, so suggestion of human presence though no people actually appear in the images. In addition to that, also about skill of the artist. Technical virtuosity in
- handling oil paint (bumpiness of rind against sheen of table and weave of textile). Cup has Neptune riding fearsome sea creature about to eat another figure, possibly Jonah. So maybe has Christian message.
- Judith Leyster. Self Portrait. Northern Baroque. C 1630. Loose painting, you can see some of her brushstrokes. Her choice of subject was genre scenes. Typically considered to be scenes or figures of everyday life. Showing herself
- as a painter, in the act of practicing her craft. Not only that, but also showing the types of scenes and figures she typically depicts. Mouth slightly open as if she is recognizing the viewer, suggesting perhaps, that we interrupted her. Dutch Baroque interested in engaging the viewer. Dressed in height of fashion with her stiff white collar, and head covered in bonnet. Not wearing painting clothes, wearing
- that of modest, fairly well to do, middle class individual.
Gerard Terborch, The Suitor’s Visit. C 1658. Oil on Canvas. Northern Baroque. Depicts elegant women and men in courting scenes. Same class of people in images were owning and buying the images. Interior space, vaguely recognizable as domestic space of well to do citizen. Two women and two men. One woman playing a lute, sitting at a piano. Man in background kind of looking over his shoulder at the engagement between two central figures. Sort of a narrative moment set up, because left man looks as if he has just opened the door, and is bowed, as if greeting the woman receiving him, and his hat has been removed. Dressed in height of fashion for 1650s. Woman wearing a particularly eye catching satin skirt. Painting greatly about ability of artist to use paints in varied ways, i.e. satin of her skirt. Perhaps related to celebration of textile industry, which was quite important to Dutch Republic at large. Also celebration of the lifestyle of young, elegant people. Hand gestures, thought to be cheeky. Man’s hand gesture represents female genitalia, and her hands are that of male genitalia.
- Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun. Hall
- of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles. France. French Baqroque. Begun 1676. Salon of war on one end, Salon of peace on the other end. Quarters were used on a daily basis, members of court would come and
- go, and the king himself would pass through this space. Very expensive room; use of glass, over 357 mirrors—material of magnificence is an expression of the authority of the king, meant to overwhelm and in a sense terrify the viewer. Monstrous magnificence. The mirrors are placed within arched space on the walls, repeating the kind of repetition found on the façade. Placed across from arched windows where light can come in to the space. Multi colored marble, chandeliers, paintings on the ceiling by Charles Le Brun, images of military achievements and successes. Transitional and processional space. Louis made court members perform elaborate rituals staged throughout the day at specific times. When he died, he had spent a tremendous amount of money on Versailles, waging military campaigns, that depeleted the bank of France! When Louis the 15th comes to power, there is a reaction against and a retreat from Versailles. He spends more time in Paris, nobility aloud to leave Versailles and return to Paris, impacting artistic production in several ways. People back in urban homes that need to be decorated.
- Germain Boffrand. Salon de la Princesse. Hotel
- de Soubise, Paris, France. Rococo. This kind of room, salon, would be a place in someone’s hotel to have gatherings of friends, socialize, have philiosphical and intellectual discussions. The
- practice of having these gatherings based on similar ideas and intellectual thoughts is also called a salon. So a salon is a place for intimate gathering, and also an event. The event were often organized and presided over by women. So they emerge as arbitors of cultural taste in the Rococo. It is often thought
- as feminine because of its elegance, pastel colors, curving designs. Room decorated with wood carvings called BOISSERIE. It’s been gilded over (painted
- with gold). Hard to find a hard edge in the room, because of a multitude of curving forms. Carved figures in stucco and marble.
- Jean-Honore Fragonard. The Meeting from the Progress of Love. Oil on Canvas. Rococo. 1771-1773. Madeam du barry was Louis 15th’s last mistress. Wielded a lot of cultural influence. Fragonard had a series of paintings about love. Rococo focused on life of aristocrats. Not a history painting because it isn’t based on text; more considered a genre painting, image about everyday life. Landscape setting that is green and verdant with a variety of flowers. Overall softness to trees and fluffy clouds. Sculpted depiction of Venus, goddess of Love. Young woman and man traversing a
- garden wall; an approach and an encounter is apparent, but
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