Chapter 9 Patho
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What characterizes cancer cells?
infiltrative growth mode
Which is not a malignant tumor?
Endocrine hormone secretion is increased in:
Metastasis is :
the ability to estabilish a secondary neiplam at a new site
Carcinoma in situ is :
preinvasive and a glandular or epithelial lesion
Known routes of metastais include:
- continuous extension
- lympathic spread
- bloodstream dissemination
Tumor suppressor genes are:
- normall genes that regulate growth and development
- genes that produce proteins that inhibit cellular division
Which is not involved in metastasis?
Oncogenic viruses are:
capable of transforming a normal cell into a concerous cell
The p53 gene:
- enabes cells to cope with DNA damage
- blocks the proliferation of cells that have suffered carcinogenic mutations
- mutations are the most common genetic lesion in human cancer
- mutations disable an emergency brake on cell proliferation
Local invasive factors include all except:
increase cellular adhesions
The sequence of carcinogensis is :
ionizing radiation, caretaker gene activity, and point mutations
An adenoma is :
- a gladular epithelial neoplasm
arise from epithelial tissure
arise from connective tissue
How are cancer cells classified:
- by anaplasia or loss of differentiation
- by autonomy or independence from normal cellular controls
The three main genetic mechanisms have a role in human carcinogenesis:
- 1. mutation of the genes resulting in hyperactivity of growth related gene products such as oncogenes
- 2. mutation of genes resulting in loss or inactivity of gene products that normally would inhibit growth such as tummor suppressor genes
- 3. mutation of genes resulting in overexpression of products that prevent normal cell death or apotosis thus resulting in allowed continued growth of tumor
Successful Metasitasis includes:
- survival in circulation
- attachment and grwoth
- induction of aniogenesis at a favorable distant site are required.
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