last Ethics 3 final.txt
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. What would you like to do?
what is common to all deontological theories
Moral duty is the basis of all morality and are universally binding on all people, and take priority over other duties like legal obligations.
How Kant defines duty..
Acting out of respect for the moral law
what two kinds of imperatives does Kant discuss?
Hypothetical and categorical
Which kind of an imperatives are, in Kant's view, the moral commands?
*Categorical imperatives should always be used because it is not morally right to use someone as a means *hypothetical*
If the action is good only as a means to something else (only good for some purpose)
How Kant thinks we know that the categorical imperative is the moral law
Because he views that the categorical imperative is justification of the moral law itself. He thinks that if we can reason, we'll be able to deduce what the moral law is, *through reason* while the utilitarian's *through experience*
what Kant thinks is the role of feelings or inclinations in morality
Feelings....they shouldn't play a role; People have inclinations in morality because they seek honor...so not really a good and moral thing you are doing
how Ross thinks we know that we have these prima facie duties
We just know, its self-evident once we think about it, sense of intuition
explain how Ross thinks these prima facie duties determine our actual obligation in a particular case; does Ross think we have to act on each of the prima facie duties in every case; does Ross think we will generally be certain of what is the right thing to do in each case
He feels that the prima facies can be of rightness or wrongness. We as humans have no sure way of knowing what is the right thing to do in certain circumstances, we learn this through trial and error and experience.
what are some important differences between Ross's moral theory and Kant's moral theory
In Kant's theory, he states that you should act if you can will that the action will be that of a universal law,. There is more of an emphasis on means and ends. You should not treat others as just a means, and says that we should act as a law-making member of the kingdom of ends. In Ross's theory he gives the 7 prima facies that must be taken into consideration every time a decision is to be made, promotes a sort of pluralism.
what is a natural right?
Natural right- Rights that self-evident, and exist independently and prior to any duties we may have. (ex: life, liberty, estate)
What does Locke take the purpose of money to be; how does Locke think money causes problems for setting fair limits on property rights.
Two purposes of money- "counter" to measure value, and as "Pledge" to claim goods. He feels there should be a favorable balance of trade. Having drastically different forms of currency leaves value for property relative, making it impossible to set universally fair limits on the monetary aspect of property rights. Money can't "waste"
What is virtue ethics?
Ethics in which the character of a moral agent is the driving force for ethical behavior.
how Aristotle thinks virtue is related to our proper function as humans;
Our proper functioning as humans, acting and thinking rationally=proper human function = virtue, functioning well.
what Aristotle means when he says that virtue is "a state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean" i.e., the mean relative to us, this being determined by a rational principle and by that principle by which the mean of practical wisdom would determine it.
Chose to be virtuous and practice it
what Aristotle thinks pleasure and pain have to do with moral training.
Practicing for pleasure and experiencing pain.
what do Premasiri and other Buddhist take to be the roots of evil and human misery?
Greed, Hatred, confusion
in particular, which aspects of contemporary culture does Premasiri think interfere with the development of clear, rational thinking processes
what does Noddings mean by "care";
Care about others, especially those you don't particularly care for. Learn to see in a different point of view.
in what way does Noddings think caring contributes to moral growth;
Caring as a virtue, creates a habit of trying to see from other pov
what Aristotle thinks pleasures and pains have to do with virtue;
pains are a means of punishment, pleasure is as well as pain, is associated with the passions of the soul.
what Aristotle means when he says that the pleasure and pain that ensues from our acts should be taken as a sign of our state of character
Because the pain and pleasure we get is a sign of our moral choices which come from our character.
What does Noddings take to be the two components of care for the one-caring?
motivational displacement of one-caring and engrossment
Under what circumstances does Noddings think we can sustain care?
engrossment, continual efforts to care. present in their acts of caring
does Noddings think it is possible for anyone to care (or even to try to care) for everyone;
No, impossible to actually do so.
compare Noddings' to Peter Singer on our obligations to help famine victims on the other side of the world.
Singer felt that we should see ourselves as one big group, to help out others in the world if it did not make anything worse off for the person giving. Noddings does not believe we have a moral obligation to help those on the other side of the world, only our inner circles. Care is relative or irrelative depending on location.
what does Kant think is the one thing that is good without qualification?
Good Will & an example of it?
Will or Virtue that is good in itself and can be considered by itself to be esteemed much higher than all that can be brought about by it in favor of any inclination. Nothing can take away from the value of the good will. (an example would be like a kind of hardcore altruism.)
what is an imperative?
The conception of an objective principle
The action is good in itself, and is within reason on its own (objectively necessary)
what Kant thinks is the role of reason in morality
Categorical imperative: Kant feels it is the source of morality and should be the driving force in determining our moral actions.
What are some important differences between Kant's moral theory and utilitarianism
Utilitarianism says that the best thing to do is whatever is in the best interest of everyone involved, sometimes the choice that is best for the majority can cause pain or misfortunate to another, typically meaning that they are being used as a means. Kantianism says that the best thing to do is whatever is morally right and abides by natural/universal law . Also states that people should not be used as a means.
what Ross means by a prima facie duty
A "Conditional" Duty that is binding (obligatory) to making other things equal , unless it is overridden by another duty.
why do Premasiri and other Buddhist thinkers think that the first step
to becoming a good person is to work on good thinking processes;
For Buddhists the main thing you have to do to be a good person is control your mind
what sorts of natural rights does Locke think human beings have
Life, liberty, estate
explain Locke's idea of property rights; what does Locke think limits our right to property
Locke argues that property is a natural right and it is derived from labor. Locke also argues that the ownership of property is created by the application of labor, what limits our right to is how much of our own labor was put for to acquire, create and maintain said property.
what Aristotle thinks virtue is
State of character b/c virtue is voluntary, something we have to work on
examples of what Aristotle would take to be a mean between extremes
Supposed to get angry at the right person and the right time, not never get angry, or not always being angry
what are some important differences between Ross's moral theory and utilitarianismIn
utilitarianism, it is morally right to take in account what will benefit the majority of the individuals involved. In Ross's theory, he states that utilitarianism is too vague. His theory is more in depth by providing the 7 prima facies that must be used to decide what is morally right or wrong.
BOTH versions of Kant’s categorical imperative?
- Act only in a way that you can will that your maxim should become a universal law (rational to will that everyone does the same thing (not just an exception) (Breaking promises and stealing can't be universalized, so not morally right)
- Practical Imperative= Act in such a way to treat humanity whether yourself, or any other person as an end and not a means.
what Ross takes to be the 7 prima duties
- Fidelity- keep promises and contracts, don't engage in deception
- Reparation - Make up for injuries done to another
- Gratitude- for grateful for benefactions done to oneself and return the favor if possible Non-Injury- not to harm others physically or psychologically:avoid harming health, security, intelligence, character or happiness
- Beneficence - duty to do good to others: foster their health, security, wisdom, moral goodness or happiness.
- Self Improvement- to act so as to promote one's own good : health, security, wisdom, moral goodness, and happiness.
- Justice- One acts in such a way that one
- distributes benefits and burdens fairly
what is the difference between liberty rights and welfare rights; which sorts of rights are emphasized in the US bill of rights (be able to give a few examples);
- Liberty Rights-(Negative) Rights to do certain kinds of things without interference as long as we do not violate other people's rights in the process. Requires that we have certain negative obligations. (Examples: right to life, free speech, property)
- Welfare Rights- (positive) Rights to certain kinds of services. (Examples: education, healthcare, police protection)
which sorts of rights are included in the UN declaration of human rights (be able to give a few examples, including both liberty rights and welfare rights)
- Liberty rights (ex: right to free speech, right to bear arms ) (slavery)Declaration of Human rights:
- Welfare Rights (right to a nationality, right to education, right to peaceful assembly, right to work)
Everyone has the right to property as long as…
- No one already owns it
- You invests your labor into making the property useful
- You use ALL of the property w/o letting any of it go to waste
What would you like to do?
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