What is the illusory correlation? How does it relate to the importance of research?
Illusory Correlation: Focus on two events that stand together, natural but not scientific
Relates to the importnace of research: requires much more evidence before conslusions can be drawn
Define Skepticism, empiricism, and falsifiability
Skepticism: ideas that must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic, and scientific investigatiosn
Empiricism: Knowledge is based on observations and data
Empirticism: Use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior
falsifiability: the principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
falsifiability: Good scientific ideas can be tested and proven false
What is peer review and why is it necessary?
Peer Review: important component of the scientific method
Can catch mistakes in one's work
Peer Review: The principle of jusging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher - other scientist with the expertise to evaluate the research.
What are the GOALS OF SCIENCE?
Predict the behavior
Determine the cause of behavior
understand or explain the behavior
What is a Research Question?
Does not have a prediction in it
It's just a question
What is a hypothesis?
Hypothesis: Prediction about behavior
Hypothesis: A Statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; oftenm a statment asserting that two or more variables are related to one another
Null and Alternative hypothesis
Null Hypothesis: They hypothesis, used for statistical puruposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results is due to random error.
A specific question outcome and belief on how they go together
EXAMPLE: as CB increases, the child's behavior will likely decrease
not expecting a certain outcome
What are the terms that are used to refer to people who participate in research?
Informants: parents, teachers, sometimes the participants
Informants: Gives information about the participants _ the adult for the child
Respondents: used in a study or in an interview
How do researchers come up with ideas to study
Common Sense: Common Knowledge
Observation about the world around them
What is a research theory? What does it do for researchers?
Research theory: Organize and expalin a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior
Provides a framework for ideas
difference between scientific theories and everyday theories
List the sections in a research article
Infor about the hypothesis
Description of the problems to be studied
Logival connections between past research and hypothesis in current research
Makes the study replicable
Results: Findings presented in 3 ways
Description in narrative form
Tables and graphs
Comparison with past research
What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture - Twin Studies
identical twins raised in two environments
identical twings compared to fraternal twins or siblings
What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture - adoption studies
2 main types
parents compared to the biological children and adoptive children
adoptive children compared to biological parents and adoptive parents
changes in skills and abilities
Abrupt qualitative changes
shifts in skills and abilites
Is development Universal?
Universal: All children develope the same - walking, talking, language
Cultural: development is dependent on the culture
Individual Difference: development is different for each person