CAS 301 Final Review Guide

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CAS 301 Final Review Guide
2011-12-07 12:35:40
Chapters one two

Chapters 1 and 2
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  1. What is the illusory correlation? How does it relate to the importance of research?
    • Illusory Correlation: Focus on two events that stand together, natural but not scientific
    • Relates to the importnace of research: requires much more evidence before conslusions can be drawn
  2. Define Skepticism, empiricism, and falsifiability
    • Skepticism: ideas that must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic, and scientific investigatiosn
    • Empiricism: Knowledge is based on observations and data
    • Empirticism: Use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior
    • falsifiability: the principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
    • falsifiability: Good scientific ideas can be tested and proven false
  3. What is peer review and why is it necessary?
    • Peer Review: important component of the scientific method
    • Can catch mistakes in one's work
    • Peer Review: The principle of jusging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher - other scientist with the expertise to evaluate the research.
  4. What are the GOALS OF SCIENCE?
    • Describe behavior
    • Predict the behavior
    • Determine the cause of behavior
    • understand or explain the behavior
  5. What is a Research Question?
    • Does not have a prediction in it
    • It's just a question
  6. What is a hypothesis?
    • Hypothesis: Prediction about behavior
    • Hypothesis: A Statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; oftenm a statment asserting that two or more variables are related to one another
  7. Null and Alternative hypothesis
    • Null Hypothesis: They hypothesis, used for statistical puruposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results is due to random error.
    • Alternative hypothesis:
  8. Directional Hypothesis
    • A specific question outcome and belief on how they go together
    • EXAMPLE: as CB increases, the child's behavior will likely decrease
  9. Non-directional hypothesis
    not expecting a certain outcome
  10. What are the terms that are used to refer to people who participate in research?
    • Participants
    • Subjects
    • Informants: parents, teachers, sometimes the participants
    • Informants: Gives information about the participants _ the adult for the child
    • Respondents: used in a study or in an interview
  11. How do researchers come up with ideas to study
    • Common Sense: Common Knowledge
    • Observation about the world around them
    • Theories
    • Past Research
    • Practical Problems
  12. What is a research theory? What does it do for researchers?
    • Research theory: Organize and expalin a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior
    • Provides a framework for ideas
    • difference between scientific theories and everyday theories
  13. List the sections in a research article
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • method
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Summary
    • Short
    • Infor about the hypothesis
    • Procedure
    • Gneral results
    • Description of the problems to be studied
    • Past research
    • Formal Hypothesis
    • Logival connections between past research and hypothesis in current research
  16. METHOD
    • Participants
    • Procedure
    • Measures
    • Makes the study replicable
  17. Results: Findings presented in 3 ways
    • Description in narrative form
    • Statistical Evidence
    • Tables and graphs
  18. Discussion
    • Hypothesis Supported
    • Conclusions
    • Explanations
    • Comparison with past research
    • Limitations
    • Future directions
  19. What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture - Twin Studies
    • 2 types
    • identical twins raised in two environments
    • identical twings compared to fraternal twins or siblings
  20. What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture - adoption studies
    • 2 main types
    • parents compared to the biological children and adoptive children
    • adoptive children compared to biological parents and adoptive parents
  21. Continous
    • Gradual
    • quantitative
    • changes in skills and abilities
    • small changes
  22. Discontinous
    • Abrupt qualitative changes
    • larger
    • shifts in skills and abilites
  23. Is development Universal?
    • Universal: All children develope the same - walking, talking, language
    • Cultural: development is dependent on the culture
    • Individual Difference: development is different for each person