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What is the illusory correlation? How does it relate to the importance of research?
- Illusory Correlation: Focus on two events that stand together, natural but not scientific
- Relates to the importnace of research: requires much more evidence before conslusions can be drawn
Define Skepticism, empiricism, and falsifiability
- Skepticism: ideas that must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic, and scientific investigatiosn
- Empiricism: Knowledge is based on observations and data
- Empirticism: Use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior
- falsifiability: the principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
- falsifiability: Good scientific ideas can be tested and proven false
What is peer review and why is it necessary?
- Peer Review: important component of the scientific method
- Can catch mistakes in one's work
- Peer Review: The principle of jusging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher - other scientist with the expertise to evaluate the research.
What are the GOALS OF SCIENCE?
- Describe behavior
- Predict the behavior
- Determine the cause of behavior
- understand or explain the behavior
What is a Research Question?
- Does not have a prediction in it
- It's just a question
What is a hypothesis?
- Hypothesis: Prediction about behavior
- Hypothesis: A Statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; oftenm a statment asserting that two or more variables are related to one another
Null and Alternative hypothesis
- Null Hypothesis: They hypothesis, used for statistical puruposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results is due to random error.
- Alternative hypothesis:
- A specific question outcome and belief on how they go together
- EXAMPLE: as CB increases, the child's behavior will likely decrease
not expecting a certain outcome
What are the terms that are used to refer to people who participate in research?
- Informants: parents, teachers, sometimes the participants
- Informants: Gives information about the participants _ the adult for the child
- Respondents: used in a study or in an interview
How do researchers come up with ideas to study
- Common Sense: Common Knowledge
- Observation about the world around them
- Past Research
- Practical Problems
What is a research theory? What does it do for researchers?
- Research theory: Organize and expalin a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior
- Provides a framework for ideas
- difference between scientific theories and everyday theories
List the sections in a research article
- Infor about the hypothesis
- Gneral results
- Description of the problems to be studied
- Past research
- Formal Hypothesis
- Logival connections between past research and hypothesis in current research
- Makes the study replicable
Results: Findings presented in 3 ways
- Description in narrative form
- Statistical Evidence
- Tables and graphs
- Hypothesis Supported
- Comparison with past research
- Future directions
What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture - Twin Studies
- 2 types
- identical twins raised in two environments
- identical twings compared to fraternal twins or siblings
What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture - adoption studies
- 2 main types
- parents compared to the biological children and adoptive children
- adoptive children compared to biological parents and adoptive parents
- changes in skills and abilities
- small changes
- Abrupt qualitative changes
- shifts in skills and abilites
Is development Universal?
- Universal: All children develope the same - walking, talking, language
- Cultural: development is dependent on the culture
- Individual Difference: development is different for each person