PSY 130

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Author:
ralejo
ID:
121475
Filename:
PSY 130
Updated:
2011-12-07 17:05:28
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critical thinking
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Description:
test 2
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  1. 1. Argument
    Group of statements used to support the conclusion
  2. 2. Premise
    Reasons
  3. 3. Arguments based on multiple premises
    • 1. Eliminate irrelevant premises
    • 2. Need more support � reevaluate remaining premises
  4. 4. Importance of considering alternative explanations
    more than one way of knowing something, comparing, promotes open mindedness
  5. 5. Conclusion
    Claim
  6. 6. Warrant
    Connections
  7. 7. Argument by analogy
    Can be thought as an argument from the particular to particular. It may use a particular truth in a premise to argue towards a similar particular truth in the conclusion
  8. 8. Two basic types of arguments
    • 1. Probability
    • 2. If premise is true, conclusion is true
    • If premise is false, conclusion is false
  9. 9. Two ways that persuasive communication can change attitudes
    • Central route to persuasion: relies on the message
    • Peripheral route to persuasion: not based on arguments or the message content
  10. 10. Samples not representative of the population
    law of large numbersstudy is invalid
  11. 11. Chained, or linked, structures in an argument
    Isolate the problem, identify the cause, speak from authority, speak from logic
  12. 12. Basic structure of a persuasive argument
    • This because of that
    • � This=conclusions
    • � That=relevant premises
  13. 13. Regression toward the mean
    • � If an extreme event happens, the next event won't be as extreme.
    • � Average return
  14. 14. Causal oversimplification
    Goes beyond making complex ideas easier to grasp by twisting and distorting the ideas.
  15. 15. Effectiveness of a persuasive message
    Credibility, expertise, physically attractive
  16. 16. Fallacy of hasty generalizations
    Conclusion with small sample
  17. 17. Common problems with survey questions
    • 1. Wording
    • 2. Order
    • 3. No middle ground
    • 1. Choice restricted
  18. 18. Inductive arguments
    Conclusion is made before the search for information
  19. 19. Deductive arguments
    Search for information results to a conclusion
  20. 20. Difference between an argument and an opinion
    • � Argument: premise, evidence, connection, conclusion
    • � Opinion: simple assertion or preference
  21. 21. Importance of identifying conclusions
    • Conclsion is the main poit of an agrument and what people want you to accept.
    • Acceptance f argument or claim
  22. 22. Purpose of correlation research
    To look for relationships between variables. Causation more about cause and effect
  23. 23. Target group
    The whole collection of individuals under study (population)
  24. 24. Relevant property
    A property or characteristic that is of interest in the target group (interest characteristics)
  25. 25. External validity
    Generalized inferences in scientific studies
  26. 26. Tendency to seek information that agrees with our ideas
    Confirmation bias
  27. 27. Availability heuristic
    Events that easily come to mind
  28. 28. Entrapment
    Invest time, money, and effort to keep going
  29. 29. Biases when assessing risk
    • 1. Voluntary
    • 2. Natural
    • 3. Control
    • 4. Memorable
    • 5. Observable
  30. 30. Cognitive economy
    Combined simplicity and relevance of a categorization scheme or representation
  31. 31. Tendency to believe that pleasant events are more likely to occur than unpleasant events
    Wishful thinking
  32. 32. Mere exposure effect
    People tend to develop a preference because they are familiar with them
  33. 33. Fallacy of appeal to tradition
    It's been known for a long time so it must be correct
  34. 34. Anchor and critical thinking
  35. 35. Error in judgment of overestimating the probability of one rare event followed by another rare event
    Post Hoc
  36. 36. Genetic fallacy
    • Origin source
    • "Since someone said so, it's true"
  37. 37. Positive correlation
    • +0.1 and +0.1
    • -0.1 and -0.1
  38. 38. Negative correlation
    +0.1 and -0.1
  39. 39. Pitfall of manner or style
    Appearance and presentation ability is not as important as the evidence
  40. 40. Either or fallacy
    • The expectation that the only reasonable view of any issue will be total affirmation or total rejection
    • � Is or isn't
    • � For or against
    • � No middle ground
  41. 41. Pitfall of overlooking regression effects
  42. 42. Fallacy of begging the question
    Arguing in a circle
  43. 43. Pitfall of focusing only on successes
    Does not focus on all numbers and failures too
  44. 44. Ad hominem fallacy
    Attack on persons character, knowledge
  45. 45. Post hoc fallacy
    One thing cause the other
  46. 46. Objective probability vs. subjective probability
    • � Objective: mathematical
    • � Subjective: based on someone's guess
  47. 47. Gambler�s Fallacy
    • Belief that repeated behavior of a random process will go in the opposite direction in the future
    • � Ex: Dice has memory and will correct itself
  48. 48. Regression toward the mean
    • � If an extreme event happens, the next event won't be as extreme.
    • � Average return
  49. 49. Biases people demonstrate when assessing risk
    • 1. Voluntary
    • 2. Natural
    • 3. Control
    • 4. Memorable
    • 5. Observable
  50. 50. Cumulative probability
    Probability that the value of a random variable falls within a specific range

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