stem cells/cancer

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  1. What are stem cells?
    • stem cells are specific tissue to ultimately produce different types of that tissue
    • 1) self-renewing population of unspecialized cells
    • 2) divide asymmetrically to give rise to differenetiated cell types
  2. What controls production of stem cells
    Enviormental cues and divion signals
  3. Potential uses for stem cells include?
    Stem cells in theory can give rise to any cell in the body (embryonic) though Adult stem cells can still help to regenerate damaged areas
  4. What is an embryonic stem cell?
    • before becomes a fetus; undifferentied cells
    • that have potential to become a wide variety of specialized cell types
  5. What is an adult stem cell?
    undifferentiated cells found in differentiated tissue that can renew itself but is already specialized from the tissue it comes from; cells from tissue, not very much and hard to identify
  6. Where do stem cells come from? Where are they found?
    basal lamina and will migrate upward
  7. Terminally Differentiated refers to...
    serve specific function only, never will reproduce, will die after when old
  8. Therapy Approaches:
    1) Transplant
    2) Stimulate stem cells within (endogenous)
    Transplant has been more successful - refers to growing in culture (donor)
  9. Positives of Embryonic Stem cells
    • immortal in culture
    • totipotent : could become any cell
    • easily obtained
  10. Negatives of ES cells
    • not well understood / hard to control
    • not "self" - may be rejected
  11. Positives of Adult Stem Cells
    • partially specialized
    • signals required for speciallized diff...and that helps
    • not attacked by immune system
  12. Negative of Adult
    • Not immortal
    • only can become cetain cells - multipotent
  13. What types of proteins in cells are often mutated in cancer?
    • Oncogenes: activating mutations; stimulated continual cell cycle
    • growth
    • Tumor suppressor: inactivation mutations; no longer works properly
  14. What is cancer?
    cancer is a diesase of cell division; cancer involves the accumulation of abnormal growth of mutations which gather and create cancer
  15. Three characteristics of cancer:
    • Invasive: growing into surrounding tissue
    • Metastatic: spreads to new sites
    • Anaplastic: abnormal in appearance and
    • organization
  16. What causes cancer:
    • 1) Spontaneous Mutation Rate
    • 2) Enviorment
    • 3) Inheritance
  17. What is a tumor?
    excess abnormal growth which results in formation of massive cells
  18. What is the result of radiation?
    stimulates breakages in DNA where mutations are activated which ruin sections when the two pieces come together which were not created together; different types of chromosomes are put together
Card Set:
stem cells/cancer
2011-12-10 19:52:52
stem cells cancer

stem cells/cancer
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