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What are stem cells?
stem cells are specific tissue to ultimately produce different types of that tissue
1) self-renewing population of unspecialized cells
2) divide asymmetrically to give rise to differenetiated cell types
What controls production of stem cells
Enviormental cues and divion signals
Potential uses for stem cells include?
Stem cells in theory can give rise to any cell in the body (embryonic) though Adult stem cells can still help to regenerate damaged areas
What is an embryonic stem cell?
before becomes a fetus; undifferentied cells
that have potential to become a wide variety of specialized cell types
What is an adult stem cell?
undifferentiated cells found in differentiated tissue that can renew itself but is already specialized from the tissue it comes from; cells from tissue, not very much and hard to identify
Where do stem cells come from? Where are they found?
basal lamina and will migrate upward
Terminally Differentiated refers to...
serve specific function only, never will reproduce, will die after when old
2) Stimulate stem cells within (endogenous)
Transplant has been more successful - refers to growing in culture (donor)
Positives of Embryonic Stem cells
immortal in culture
: could become any cell
Negatives of ES cells
not well understood / hard to control
not "self" - may be rejected
Positives of Adult Stem Cells
signals required for speciallized diff...and that helps
not attacked by immune system
Negative of Adult
only can become cetain cells - multipotent
What types of proteins in cells are often mutated in cancer?
: activating mutations; stimulated continual cell cycle
: inactivation mutations; no longer works properly
What is cancer?
cancer is a diesase of cell division; cancer involves the accumulation of abnormal growth of mutations which gather and create cancer
Three characteristics of cancer:
: growing into surrounding tissue
: spreads to new sites
: abnormal in appearance and
What causes cancer:
1) Spontaneous Mutation Rate
What is a tumor?
excess abnormal growth which results in formation of massive cells
What is the result of radiation?
stimulates breakages in DNA where mutations are activated which ruin sections when the two pieces come together which were not created together; different types of chromosomes are put together
stem cells cancer