Ocular Drugs

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Author:
mpgcuenca
ID:
121491
Filename:
Ocular Drugs
Updated:
2011-12-07 03:30:55
Tags:
Ocular Pharmacology
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Description:
Ocular Drugs
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  1. BETA BLOCKERS
    • Betaxolol (BETOPTIC, beta1 selective)
    • Timolol (TIMOPTIC, TIMOPTIC XE, BETIMOL)
  2. MoA
    • Target tissues are the ciliary body epithelium and blood vessels where
    • β 2 receptors account for 75% to 90% of the total population. Beta
    • adrenergic receptors on the ciliary epithelium facilitate the secretion of
    • aqueous humor. Blocking these receptors reduces the secretory activity
    • and consequently reduces intraocular pressure. Additionally, beta
    • blockers decrease ocular blood flow, which decrease the ultrafiltration
    • responsible for aqueous production.
  3. Indication
    • Betaxolol is the only beta1-selective agent for ophthalmic use, it is less
    • efficacious than the nonselective agents since the beta-receptors of the
    • eye are mainly beta2, but betaxolol is less likely to exacerbate reactive
    • airway disease or cause breathing difficulty.
  4. SEs
    • Enough timolol can be absorbed from the eye to cause
    • bronchoconstriction (beta2 in lungs) and bradycardia (beta1 in heart) in
    • susceptible patients. Topical timolol may interact with orally administered
    • verapamil and increase the risk of heart block. Additional side effects
    • include, lightheadedness, cold fingers and toes, insomnia, fatigue,
    • depression, vivid dreams, hallucinations, sexual dysfunction; hair loss.
    • Timolol is contraindicated in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease
    • and those with congestive heart failure.

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