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The role of socialization trasmitts what two things?
- Culture- you learn culture by socialization by interacting with others. You learn the calues beliefs and norms of the society and the skills to function effectively in society.
- A sense of self- charles cooley's "the looking-glass self"
Socialization as a life long process
Prejudices are developed by the age of 5 but we continue to keep learning everyday until the day we die
What feral children teach us about socialization
even though kids are biologically human, they dont have instincts that make them human, but acquire humaness through social interaction with other humans. Human beings are the social creation of society.
The importance of language as a socialization tool
- learning our culural language we discover the meaning of symbols not only for words but also for objects. It symbolizes the balues and norms of the society. Children also learn about gender identity associated with masculinity and femininity.
- Language is a powerful medium of socialization and through language kids absorb subtle messages regarding societal expectations.
Charles Horton Cooley and the looking-glass self
- 3 elements:
- 1) perception of ones behavior or appearence as seen by the other
- 2) the perception of their judegment of that appearence or behavior
- 3) the resulting feelings of pride or mortification
George Herbert Mead and the discovery of the generalized other: STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
- Imitation Stage-Distinguish themselves from others and become self conscious by the time they are two. The are able to react to themselves as others will eact ot them. Are conscious of themseves by incorporating the way other people are conscious of them.
- Play Stage-take the roles of others and start to see themselves how other people see them
- Game stage- the understand rules and stuff and roles of others and get a sense of the generalized other*
What are the three agents of socialization and be able to explain characteristics of all.
- Family- primary socialization agent. Teachers individueals basic skills. The family plays an important role in the acquisition of language an the way our thinking is shaped about the world
- Eduacational System- schools is the first place where we are put in an environment where we arent special and teated equally. It teaches us organization and how to follow directions. transmits skills necessary for the maintenance of society. provides impersonal and uniformed socialization
- The Mass Media- normalizes and reinforces ideologies and viwes. teaches tasks that were taught by parents, schools and other instituts. The media is very conservative with the info that they share. the wholething is entertainment. same people own numerous diversities of media that give the same bias info that we take in as information.
Defining Social Control
The mechanisms by which we ensure conformity to social norms and laws. It is essential for social order and is neciessary cuz socialization is never perfect or complete.
Peter Berger identified 8 sources of social control in US society.
- Economic reward and punishment
- ridicule and gossip
- fraud and deception
- belief systems
- sphere of inmates
- The formal contract
What are the necessary components to social control? (2)
- institutions- police, sports, medicine
- techniques and technologies within institution- like surveillance cameras and stuff
Types of Social Control
Informal and Formal and Direct and Ideological
How does ideological social control work?
- It is carried out in diff ways.
- Socialization of youth, attacks on competing ideologies by people with aunthority, propaganda by poloticians
What are the 6 instituations that take place in ideological social control?(the 6 agents)
- Family-teaches values and norms and emphasizes the inportance of fitting into society.
- Schools-teaches behavorial standards of the community, instills correct attititudeds toward authority and work
- Religion-creates supernamtural system of rewards and punishments
- Media- conservative bias and normalizes beliefs and ideologies and promotes stereotypes
- Sports-reinforcing behavior and attitudes, distraction from social political and econ. probs, false hope created
- Govt-convinces people that other plitical systems are wrong and create fear
What are the three things ideological social control attempts to accomplish?
Manipulate the consciousness of citizens so they accewpt the ruling ideology , refuse to be moved by competing ideologies, and to persuade people t ocomply with rules without question and with acceptance
The targets of Direct Social Control(4)
- poor, mentally ill, criminals and political dissidents
agents of Direct Social Control
- i. The Welfare system
- ii. Medicine
- iii. The Criminal Justice system
Social Control in the Private sectors
George Orwell-culture of surveilance
What is the irony of social control?
the US is waging a war to defend its free society but in doing so it restricts those very freedoms it seeks to defend.
The characteristics of deviance
- a. Socially defined
- b. Not universal
- c. Changes across time
- d. Inconsistency within a society regarding how deviant label is applied
- e. Differences in acceptability and treatment of the same behavior in heterogeneous (diverse) societies