psci test

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B-hunter
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121512
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psci test
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2011-12-07 08:35:30
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political institutions
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  1. Current congressional makeup
    Presidency controlled by Democrat

    112th Congress controlled by:

    • House: Republicans
    • Republican: 244
    • Democrat: 191

    • Senate: Democrats
    • Republican: 47
    • Democrat: 51
    • Independent: 2






  2. Article I powers
    A bicameral legislature

    Reapportionment of the House every 10 years

    Minimum requirements for seeking office

    Law-making powers

    • Enumerated powers in Section 8:
    • Declare war
    • Collect taxes







  3. Legislators as rational actors







  4. Three activities of legislators
    legislators want to be reelected, and they advertise, credit claim, and take positions to ensure this (Mayhew).







  5. Advertising
    Maintain visibility to constituents through frequent trips home and mailings (e-mail)







  6. Credit claiming
    Let people know what you’ve done

    Service to individuals in their district.

    • Casework: specifically helping constituents get what they think they have a right to.
    • Pork Barrel: federal projects, grants, etc. made available in a congressional district or state.







  7. Position taking
    • Portray selves as hard working, dedicated individuals
    • Take public stands on issues







  8. The reelection incentive
    Higher chance of winning

    Those already holding office, who typically win reelection







  9. Incumbency advantage; and reasons for
    Legislators perform the three activities well

    Name recognition

    Party Identification: Most incumbents already represent the majority party in their district

    Weak Opponents: Most opponents are inexperienced in politics, unorganized, and underfunded






  10. Defeating incumbents; and ways how
    • Scandals or other complications in office weaken the incumbency advantage
    • Often, the incumbent will withdraw and leave a seat “open”

    • A legislator may be “drawn out” of their district
    • She now represents a new set of voters

    • They may face massive voter retaliation
    • More likely for senators than representatives







  11. Money and elections
    Legislators must spend money to win reelection

    • But spending lots of money does not guarantee a win
    • More money spent equals more competitive race
    • Open seats are most expensive
    • Candidates “run scared”

    Political Action Committees do not “buy” candidates







  12. Congressional organization; house v. senate
    • Incumbents winning provides stability in Congress.
    • But, it makes it more difficult to change Congress through elections.

    • Term limits may force member turnover
    • Increase instability in Congress
    • Disadvantageous unless Congress limits itself
    • Besides, most disapprove of Congress, even though they typically approve of their member







  13. Congressional leadership; names
    The House

    • Speaker of the House: elected by members, and of majority party
    • Speaker presides over House, and has major role in committee assignments and legislation.


    The Senate

    • Officially led by Vice President.
    • Really led by Majority Leader: chosen by party members.
    • Must work with Minority leader.







  14. Conference committees
    Four types of committees:

    Standing committees: committees handle different policy areas.

    Joint committees: few policy areas, made up of House & Senate members.

    Conference committees: resolve differences in House and Senate bills.

    Select committees: created for a specific purpose.







  15. Standing committees; task and type
    Legislation

    • Committees work on 11,000 bills every year.
    • Committees hold hearings on legislation.
    • Committees serve as a cue or voting reference for other members.

    Senate

    • agriculture, nutrition and, forestry
    • Appropreation
    • armed forces
    • Banking, housing, and urban affairs
    • Budget
    • Commerce, sciece, and tranceportation
    • energy and natural resources
    • enviroment and publc works
    • finance
    • foreign relationships
    • health labor education and pention
    • homeland security, and govermant affairs
    • judiciary
    • rule and administration
    • small business and entrepreneurship
    • veterans affairs

    • House Committees
    • Agriculture
    • appropriations
    • armed services
    • budget
    • Education and labor
    • energy and commerce
    • financial services
    • foreign affairs
    • homeland security
    • house administraion
    • judiclary
    • natural resources
    • Oversight and govermental reform
    • rules
    • science and technology
    • small business
    • standards of official coduct
    • transportation and official infastructure
    • veterans affairs
    • ways and means







  16. Congressional oversight
    Oversight involves hearings and other methods of pressuring the executive branch into action.

    As size of government grows, oversight grows too.







  17. How a bill becomes a law
    • House
    • Bill is introduced, committee action(subcommittee,committee,rules committe), floor action(full house) ,president decides.

    Senate

    Bill is introduced, committee action(subcommittee,committee,leadership), floor action(full senate) ,president decides.







  18. Four factors that influence legislators’ votes
    Presidents,Approval, bargaining, leadership, speeches, to succeed in congress president most win several battles in each house, presiental veto.

    • Party and ideology.
    • Constituents
    • Interest groups






  19. Party polarization and effects

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