biochem buzzwords, cancer to glycogen

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embryo
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121547
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biochem buzzwords, cancer to glycogen
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2011-12-07 12:35:08
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biochemistry
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MS1/Mod 4: Biochemistry
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  1. Platelet derived GF
    • Sis
    • over expression
    • Astrocytoma
    • Osteosarcoma
  2. epidermal GF receptor
    • Erb-B2
    • amplification
    • cancers
  3. retinoid hormone receptor
    • Rar alpha
    • transloc
    • APL
  4. tyrosine kinase signaling mol
    • Abl
    • transloc
    • CML
  5. GTP binding prot signaling mol
  6. Ras
    • pt mutations
    • cancers
  7. TF
    • Myc
    • transloc
    • amplification
    • Burkitt
    • Neuroblastoma
  8. Cyclin D cell cycle reg
    • cyclin D
    • transloc
    • amplification
    • lymphoma
    • breast, liver
  9. CDK cell cycle reg
    • CDK 4
    • amplifaction
    • pt mutations
    • glioblastoma
    • melanoma
  10. truncated EGF rec
    • avian leukemia virus
    • erb B oncogene encodes for shortened rec
    • loss of EC binding domain allows for rec to be continually on
  11. Ras GTP
    phosph cyt/nuc prot for cell prolif
  12. Ras mut
    GTPase act destroyed...always on
  13. NF-1
    controls Ras, inact GTPase domain to decrease cell prolif
  14. NF-1 mut
    • not able to decrease Ras expression; Ras always on
    • Familial tumor predisposition syndrome NF-1
  15. Cyclin E
    S phase
  16. Cdk 2
    S phase, early G2
  17. Cyclin A
    early G2 phase
  18. Cyclin B
    late G2 phase
  19. Cdk 1
    late G2 phase
  20. Cyclin D
    G1 phase
  21. Cdks 4, 6
    G1 phase
  22. pRb
    phosph by cyclin/cdk combos
  23. phosph pRb
    act E2F
  24. act E2F
    gene transC fro DNA synth enz
  25. p53
    • act by DNA damage
    • stim: genes for apoptosis, DNA repair, p21
  26. p21 (Warfar-1)
    inhib cyclin/cdk combos therefore inactive Rb and no cell prolif
  27. p53 and cancer
    if a cancer treatment uses DNA damaging agents, best if used w/ p53 (apoptosis and repair genes)
  28. Wilm's tumor
    WT-1 (TF) mut

    • normally, inhib GF
    • mut, no inhib and uncontrolled synth
  29. ataxia telangiectasia
    ATM def

    • normally, tumor suppressor
    • mut, p53 not stim and no suppression of cell division
  30. HNPCC
    methyl directed mismatch repair enz mut

    • normally, tumor suppressor
    • mut, uncontrolled prolif
  31. melanoma, panc, lung cancers
    INKs deleted or mutated
  32. APC
    • adenomatous polyposis coli
    • inact in normal epi in colon cancer
  33. k-ras
    • proto-onogene
    • act after sm polyp forms in colon cancer
  34. DCC
    • tumor suppressor
    • inact w/ p53 after lg polyp forms in colon cancer
  35. Nm23
    • tumor suppressor
    • inact after carcinoma forms in colon cancer
  36. glycogenin
    • prot in core of glycogen polymer
    • cat formation of UDP and glycogen (n+1) from UDP glucose and glycogen
    • adds in alpha 1,4 manner (not branch making)
  37. glycogen synthase
    takes over glycogenin, uses UDP gluc
  38. UDP gluc phosphorylase
    makes UDP gluc from G1P and UTP
  39. G1P
    from G6P and glucophosphomutase
  40. UTP
    from nuc diphosph kinase and ATP
  41. branching enzyme
    after 11 residues, breaks alpha 1,4 and transfers block to C6 of an internal and makes alpha 1,6
  42. glycogen phosphorylase
    • glycogen breakdown to G1P and glycogen (n-1)
    • stops at 4th from branch point
  43. debranching enz
    • 1. transferase: transfers all but last residue of branch to terminal alpha 1,4
    • 2. alpha 1,6 glucosidase: takes off last branching residue
  44. G6P phosphatase
    • G6P to glucose
    • in liver but NOT muscle...glycogen goes directly to glycolysis for its own energy needs and glycogen cannot be stored as glucose
  45. epi and glycogen
    • beta adrenergic>Gs>AC>cAMP>
    • 1. inhib UDP glucose (no glycogen synth)
    • 2. act glycogen conv to glucose
    • 3. inhib glucose to pyruv/fat conv
    • 4. inhib glycoge synthase (duh)

    Basically...stim glycogenolysis and inhib glycogen synth in exercise so can use E for muscle contractions
  46. insulin and glycogen
    inhib glycogenolysis and stim glycogen synth (liver and mm) to decrease blood gluc
  47. insulin activities
    1. stim phosphoprotein phosphatase to keep phosphorylase kinase B around/no glycogenolysis

    2. stim protein phosphatase A to keep phosphorylase B around (act glycogen synthase)

    3. stim casein kinases 1/2

    4. inhib glycogen synthase kinase 3
  48. cAMP (from glucagon/Epi) activities
    1. stim PKA to keep phosphorylase kinase A around via phosphorylation

    2. inhib protein phosphatase A to keep phosphorylase A around, which is phosphorylated

    3. inhib phosphoprotein phosphatase (keeps around phosphorylase kinase A...glycogenolysis)
  49. ATP activities
    inhib phosphorylase A/ glycogenolysis
  50. glucose activities
    inhib phosphorylase A/glycogenolysis
  51. AMP activities
    activate phosphorylase B/stimulate glycogenolysis bc need energy super bad
  52. PKA activities
    inhib prot phosphatase to keep phosphorylase A around/glycogenolysis
  53. calcium activities
    • 1. stim phosphate kinase/glycogenolysis
    • 2. stim calmodulin dep prot kinase (inhib glycogen synthase)
    • 3. stim PKC
  54. DAG
    stim PKC
  55. G6P allosteric function
    act glycogen synthase
  56. phosphoprotein phosphatase
    activated by insulin; dephosph other prot

    • 1. glycogen synth act
    • 2. phosph kinase inact
    • 3. glycogen phosph inact
  57. glucose and liver
    wants to stop glycogen breakdown

    • 1. inhib phosphorylase A (no glycogen formation)
    • 2. act phosphatase (can now dephosph glycogen synth so it can become active)
  58. hypoglycemia
    kidney/liver can't relase gluc
  59. hyperlipemia/ketosis
    lots FA metab
  60. Type 1 glycogen storage disease
    • hypoglycemia
    • hyperlipemia
    • lots pyruvate and lactate

    rx: glucose
  61. Type 2 glycogen storage disease
    • no alpha 1,4 -ase
    • ....glycogens engorged w/ glycogen
  62. Type 3 glycogen storage diseases
    debranching enz def
  63. Type 4 glycogen storage disease
    branching enz defect (long polymers toxic to hepatocytes)
  64. Type 5/6 glycogen storage disease
    • phosphorylase def
    • McArdle's
  65. McArdle's
    • initial exercise inhib bc ADP can't go to ATP
    • shows necessity of muscle glycogen at beginning of exercise but second wind not affected bc over time blood gluc and FA give enough ATP for mm contraction
  66. Von Gierke disease
    • Type 1; G6Pase def
    • organ, kidney
    • lots glycogen
  67. Pompe disease
    • Type 2
    • lots glycogen
  68. Cori disease
    Type 3; short branches
  69. Andersen disease
    Type 4; long branches
  70. Hers disease
    Type 6; phosphorylase def; lots glycogen
  71. Type 7 glycogen storage disease
    phosphofructokinase def; lots glycogen
  72. Type 8 glycogen storage disease
    phosphorylase kinase def; lots glycogen

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