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What is a variable? What is a level or Value of a variable?
Variable: any event, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies  that is, has at least two varaibles

What is a level of a varaible? Value of a variable?
 Specific instances of the variable
 May be quatitative/numberical
 Values, a number with a variable
 May be instances of a category

Situational Variable
 Describes the characteristics of a situation or environment
 May preexist or be manipulated by the researcer  previous experiment
 To study things that are all ready there
 Predictor Varaible (when preexists) or independent variable (when manipulated by the researcher)

Response Varaible
 Participant's reaction to the situation
 Behavior/outcome
 Dependent Varaible (when there is an independent variable) or criterion variable (where there is a predictor varaible)

Participant/Subject Variables
 Individual differnces about the participant
 Preexisitng
 Predictor Varaibles

What is a conceptual definition of a variable?
 The dictionary definition
 Explanation or description of a variable

What is an operational definition
 How you will measure the variable
 Definition in your own words

What is a linear relatoinship between variables? How is a linear relationship measure?
 Linear Relationship: Relationship measure with correlation coefficient and direction and strength
 Correlation Coefficient: Relationship between two varaibles

What is the diffreence between the direction and the strength of a correlation coefficient?

Positive Linear Relationship
 One variable increases, the other variable will also increase
 A one slope = a perfect slope
 EXAMPLE: hot weather/crime rate  as the temp outside increase the crime rate also increase.
 RANGE: 0 to 1.00
 1.00 to 1.00

No relationship Linear relationships
 =zero
 There is no systematic relation between the variables

Negative Linear Relationships
 One variable increases and the other variable decreases
 EXAMPLE: constant discipline increase, the negative behavioral problems will decrease

Curvilinear Relationships
 Cannot measure with a simple correlation coefficient
 Increase in one variable are sometimes assoicated with an increase in the other variable and sometimes associated with a decrease in the other variable
 INCREASE/INCRASE
 INCREASE/DECREASE
 DECREASE/DECREASE

Nominal Scales
 No numerical values
 catergories
 basic scales
 names categoreis
 anything you cannot put in order
 EXAMPLE: gender, ethnicity, any yes/no question

Ordinal Scales
 Ordinal Scales: A scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continum
 Ranked from first to last
 Difference between the categories is not necessarily the same

Interval Scales
 Interval Scales: A scale of measurment in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size
 Difference between numbers on scale is meaningful
 Interval are EQUAL IN SIZE
 No true zero
 EXAMPLE: temperature

What is a Likert Scale
 Ordinal
 ordered rating catergories

List the major types of measures
 Questionnaires/Surveys
 Interviews
 Observations
 Direct Test

What is error in measure?
 source error: operational definition isn't consisten  reliability
 Operational definition doesn't match: Validity

What is reliability?
 Consistency or stability of a measure of behavior
 The degree to which a measure is consistent

TestRetest Relaibility
A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time.

Internal Consistency Reliability
 Reliability assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiple measures of a psychological construct.
 A measure is reliable when the multiple measures provide similar reuslts

Splithalf reliability
A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on half of the items on a score measure with scores on the other half of the measures

Cronbach's Alpha
 A indicator of internal consistency reliability assessed by examining the average correlation of each item (question) in a measute wiht every other question.
 EXAMPLE: 1  2,3,4,5, & 2  3,4,5, & 34,5

What is validity
The truth and accurate representation of information about your study and measures

Face validity
 The degreee to which a measuremtn device appears to accurately measure a variable
 Look at the measure to see if it has "face" value

Predicitive Validity
 related to other things that it should be related to in the future
 Measure something today and compare it to something in the futurer
 EXAMPLE: aggression in 10 year olds and the crime rate in the future
 The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior.

Concurrent Validity
 Related to other things that it should be related to at the same time
 Done at the same time
 EXAMPLE: SAT scores your senior year should be related to the GPA level
 The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining whether groupd of people differer in the measure in expected ways

Convergent Validty
 Similar to other measures of the same thing
 Multiple measures of the same thing
 EXAMPLE: teacher survery of children and observations of the children, they should be the same
 The Construct validy of a meaurse is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores conceptually unrelated measures.

Discrimininant Validity
 Different from meaures of other things
 Low relationships between the 2 measures
 Presnonily scores shoud not be related to ones reading aiblity, therefoer, no relationship
 The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which the scores on the measure are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures.

What is external Validity
The degree to which the results of an experiment may be gernealized

