CAS 301 Final Review Guide
Card Set Information
CAS 301 Final Review Guide
Chapters Four Five
Chapters 4 and 5
What is a variable? What is a level or Value of a variable?
Variable: any event, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies - that is, has at least two varaibles
What is a level of a varaible? Value of a variable?
Specific instances of the variable
May be quatitative/numberical
Values, a number with a variable
May be instances of a category
Describes the characteristics of a situation or environment
May pre-exist or be manipulated by the researcer - previous experiment
To study things that are all ready there
Predictor Varaible (when pre-exists) or independent variable (when manipulated by the researcher)
Participant's reaction to the situation
Dependent Varaible (when there is an independent variable) or criterion variable (where there is a predictor varaible)
Individual differnces about the participant
What is a conceptual definition of a variable?
The dictionary definition
Explanation or description of a variable
What is an operational definition
How you will measure the variable
Definition in your own words
What is a linear relatoinship between variables? How is a linear relationship measure?
: Relationship measure with correlation coefficient and direction and strength
: Relationship between two varaibles
What is the diffreence between the direction and the strength of a correlation coefficient?
Positive Linear Relationship
One variable increases, the other variable will also increase
A one slope = a perfect slope
: hot weather/crime rate - as the temp outside increase the crime rate also increase.
: 0 to 1.00
-1.00 to 1.00
No relationship Linear relationships
There is no systematic relation between the variables
Negative Linear Relationships
One variable increases and the other variable decreases
: constant discipline increase, the negative behavioral problems will decrease
Cannot measure with a simple correlation coefficient
Increase in one variable are sometimes assoicated with an increase in the other variable and sometimes associated with a decrease in the other variable
No numerical values
anything you cannot put in order
: gender, ethnicity, any yes/no question
: A scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continum
Ranked from first to last
Difference between the categories is not necessarily the same
: A scale of measurment in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size
Difference between numbers on scale is meaningful
Interval are EQUAL IN SIZE
No true zero
What is a Likert Scale
ordered rating catergories
List the major types of measures
What is error in measure?
: operational definition isn't consisten - reliability
Operational definition doesn't match
What is reliability?
Consistency or stability of a measure of behavior
The degree to which a measure is consistent
A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time.
Internal Consistency Reliability
Reliability assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiple measures of a psychological construct.
A measure is reliable when the multiple measures provide similar reuslts
A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on half of the items on a score measure with scores on the other half of the measures
A indicator of internal consistency reliability assessed by examining the average correlation of each item (question) in a measute wiht every other question.
: 1 - 2,3,4,5, & 2 - 3,4,5, & 3-4,5
What is validity
The truth and accurate representation of information about your study and measures
The degreee to which a measuremtn device appears to accurately measure a variable
Look at the measure to see if it has "face" value
related to other things that it should be related to in the future
Measure something today and compare it to something in the futurer
: aggression in 10 year olds and the crime rate in the future
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior.
Related to other things that it should be related to at the same time
Done at the same time
: SAT scores your senior year should be related to the GPA level
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining whether groupd of people differer in the measure in expected ways
Similar to other measures of the same thing
Multiple measures of the same thing
: teacher survery of children and observations of the children, they should be the same
The Construct validy of a meaurse is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores conceptually unrelated measures.
Different from meaures of other things
Low relationships between the 2 measures
Presnonily scores shoud not be related to ones reading aiblity, therefoer, no relationship
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which the scores on the measure are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures.
What is external Validity
The degree to which the results of an experiment may be gernealized