ANT Part 3

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  1. Describe h. heidelbergensis:
    • 600k-200kya.
    • Increased cranial capacity - 1200cc.
    • Supraorbital torus is divided.
    • Broad frontal bone, expaned parietal walls.
    • Wooden spears, acheulian biface tech.
    • Common ancestor of modern humans in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe.
  2. Heidelberg sites:
    Mauer, Petralona, Arago, Atapuerca
  3. H. antecessor:
    • Dentition resembles ergaster.
    • Premolars have 3 roots, not 1.
    • Mandible similar to heidelberg.
    • Modern face, primitive dentition.
    • Oldowan tools.
    • ~800kya in Spain - La Gran Dolina. Earliest European group.
    • Strong evidence of nutritional cannibalism.
  4. Important sites:
    • Atapuerca, Gran Dolina.
    • East Africa.
  5. What is associated with these sites?
    • Atapuerca - h. heidelbergensis. The pit of bones - the largest collection of pre-modern hominid fossils in the world.
    • Petralona - Site in Greece. Skull with early Neanderthal characteristics.
    • Africa - Heidelbergensis 500k-100kya. More obviously similar to modern h. sapiens.
  6. Phylogenic implications of accepting H antecessor as a species?
    • Instead of heidelberg being an ancestor of modern humans, accepting antecessor as a species/ancestor would place both erectus and heidelberg off the direct line.
    • Ergaster -> erectus.
    • Ergaster -> antecessor -> sapiens.
    • Antecessor -> heidelberg -> neanderthal.
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ANT Part 3
ANT Exam Four Part 3 of 5
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