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- 127-~50kya. Limited to Europe and Western Asia.
- Long face - relatively low.
- Globular, with maximum breadth at midparietal levels.
- Large cranial capacity - 1200-1700, avg ~1500.
- Occipital bun.
- Extreme midfacial prognathism.
- Large orbits, large nasal aperture/cavity.
- Dentition: Large cheek teeth. Fused root and large pulp cavity - taurodontism.
- Extraordinarily thick ribs.
- Extremely large muscle attachment.
- Distal limb segments relatively short.
- Extraordinarily robust.
What tool technology are they associated with?
Mousterian technology, Levallois techniques.
Culture and behavior:
- Buried their dead.
- Language abilities near modern human.
What is the difference between Classic/Western Neanderthals and Eastern Neanderthals?
- Higher skull.
- Less occipital bunning.
- Less prognathism.
- Males taller.
- Sites younger.