Org Ch 8

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  1. Formal vs Informal group
    • Formal: designated by organization
    • Informal: chosen by members or created from a situation
  2. Command Group
    Formal group that includes the group's manager
  3. Task Group
    • Formal, but no set hierarchy
    • All command groups are task groups, but not all task groups are command groups
  4. Reasons people join groups
    Security, status, self-esteem, affiliation, power, goal achievement
  5. Stages for group development
    • Forming: uncertainty, complete when members see themselves as a group
    • Storming: intragroup conflict, complete with established hierarchy
    • Norming: relationships and cohesiveness develop, complete when expectations of group are established
    • Performing: energy switches from group creation to task at hand
    • Ajourning: the end
  6. Five group properties
    • roles
    • norms
    • status
    • size
    • cohesiveness
  7. Role identity
    • Attitudes and behaviors associated with a role.
    • ex. guard vs prisoner experiment
  8. Role perception
    Role expectations
    Role conflict
    • Role perception: how an individual believes he should act in a situation
    • Role expectations: how others believe a person should act in a situation
    • Role conflict: when role expectations are contradictory (people's beliefs are different)
  9. Norms
    acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by group members
  10. Conformity
    changing attitudes and behaviors of a person so he fits into a group
  11. Reference groups
    most important groups that a person belongs to, these are the groups that the person conforms to and whose attitudes he takes on
  12. Deviant workplace behavior
    voluntary action that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well being of the organization or its members
  13. Status
    socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others
  14. Status characteristics theory
    • Status is derived from -
    • 1) the power a person wields over others: controls the group's resources
    • 2) the person's ability to contribute to the group's goals
    • 3) personal characteristics: must be positively valued by group members (friendly, good looks, money)
  15. High status individuals...
    • can deviate from norms more freely
    • are often more assertive
  16. Small groups vs. Large groups
    • Small groups: faster, better individual performance
    • Large groups: better at complex problem solving
  17. Ideal group size
  18. Social loafing
    individuals expend less energy when working in a group
  19. Seven ways to increase cohesiveness
    • make group smaller
    • encourage agreement with group goals
    • increase the time members spend together
    • increase status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership
    • stimulate competition with other groups
    • physically isolate the group
  20. Strengths of group decision making
    more complete information and knowledge, increased diversity of views, accpetance of solution, creativity
  21. weaknesses of group decision making
    conformity pressures, dominated by one or a few members, ambiguous responsibility, less efficient and slow
  22. Group decision accuracy
    more accurate than the average member, but less accurate than the most accurate member
  23. Groupthink
    norms and conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views
  24. Groupshift
    • groups tend to exaggerate their initial position, conservative or risky
    • the shift is often toward greater risk
  25. Brainstorming
    • idea-generation process that encourages any and all alternatives while withholding criticisms
    • meant to overcome pressures of conformity
  26. Nominal group technique
    • restricts communication during decision making process
    • individuals generate ideas on their own, then share with the group in an organized fashion
Card Set:
Org Ch 8
2011-12-07 18:47:01
Org behavior

Org behavior ch 8
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